Mayer V Prensky Pres5


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This is a presentation I made at the ED-MEDIA Conference in Vienna last summer. It contrasts the diametrically opposed approaches of Richard E. Mayer and Marc Prensky regarding media and instruction.

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Mayer V Prensky Pres5

  1. 1. FACE OFF! Mayer v. Prensky
  2. 2. University of Nebraska @ Omaha NE Melodee Landis, Ph.D. Teacher Education
  3. 3. What’s coming… <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of Instruction & Design </li></ul><ul><li>Research Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended actions </li></ul>MAYER V. PRENSKY
  4. 4. Sabbatical <ul><li>GOALS: </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate the reportedly changing needs of young learners today. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore how to use multimedia to reach them. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Goal 1: Youngest learners paradox <ul><li>Say they want to engage their own students </li></ul><ul><li>Expect lectures (“tell & test”) </li></ul>(Teachers-to-be) <ul><li>Want to revolutionize teaching methods </li></ul><ul><li>See class projects as “We have to do all the work.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Goal 1: Multimedia authorities <ul><li>Cognitive Psychologist, U of California @ Santa Barbara </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher, musician, business consultant/executive </li></ul>(Most compelling to me) <ul><li>Learning theory, instruction, multimedia design principles </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary, video gaming for young “digital natives” </li></ul>RICHARD E. MAYER MARC PRENSKY Each seeks to identify and validate the most effective ways that multimedia can improve learning.
  7. 7. Theoretical Approach - Mayer <ul><li>Which is learning most like? </li></ul><ul><li>strengthening a connection, i.e., adding new behaviors to your repertoire; </li></ul><ul><li>adding files to a file cabinet, i.e., adding new information to your knowledge bank; or </li></ul><ul><li>building a model, i.e., understanding how to fit pieces of information together. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Theoretical Approach - Mayer Cognitive guidance system Cognitive guide Active sense maker Building coherent mental structure Knowledge Construction Delivery system Dispenser of information Passive receiver of information Adding information to memory Information Acquisition Exercise system Dispenser of rewards and punishments Passive receiver of rewards and punishments Strengthening & weakening connections Response Strengthening Goal of MM Teacher Learner Content Metaphor
  9. 9. Theoretical Approach - Mayer Cognitive guidance system Cognitive guide Active sense maker Building coherent mental structure Knowledge Construction Delivery system Dispenser of information Passive receiver of information Adding information to memory Information Acquisition Exercise system Dispenser of rewards and punishments Passive receiver of rewards and punishments Strengthening & weakening connections Response Strengthening Goal of MM Teacher Learner Content Metaphor
  10. 10. Theoretical Approach - Mayer <ul><li>Instructional design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diagnose prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive goals & objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assessment through results of case studies, problem-solving exercises or decision-making situations similar to real life </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Theoretical Approach - Mayer <ul><li>Learners actively construct their own learning by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>selecting what is relevant to them, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organizing by connecting existing and new knowledge structures, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating new & old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applying/transferring to external situations/problems </li></ul></ul>CONSTRUCTIVIST å la Lev Vygotsky/Piaget/Dewey
  12. 12. Theoretical Approach - Mayer <ul><li>Slow-changing & universal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive load = time-worn limitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual processing = proven process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some acknowledgement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific cognitive skills nurtured by discrete cultures are identifiably different </li></ul></ul>Meticulous experimentation with each element of multimedia tools
  13. 13. Theoretical Approach - Prensky <ul><li>Are the perennial ideas about learning applicable to today’s “twitch” generation? </li></ul><ul><li>Different learning experiences due to intimate relationships with technology from earliest ages. </li></ul><ul><li>They process and communicate information differently. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Theoretical Approach - Prensky <ul><li>Believes it’s likely that today’s “digital natives” brains have physically adapted. </li></ul><ul><li>Claims neuroscience supports this notion. </li></ul><ul><li>Calls for radical shift from traditional theories of “digital immigrants”. </li></ul><ul><li>Believes “tell-test” methods are outmoded. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Principles of Instruction & Design - Mayer <ul><li>Teacher is “cognitive guide” </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes familiar with how learning works </li></ul><ul><li>Applies multimedia governed by research-proven principles and human cognition principles </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as communicator/guide through experience </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia should be learner-centered </li></ul>
  16. 16. Principles of Instruction & Design - Mayer Ensure that learners know the names and characteristics of key concepts. Pre-training Principle Break a continuous lesson into bite-size segments. Segmenting Principle Use conversational style and virtual coaches. Personalization Principle Adding interesting material can hurt learning of target objectives. Coherence Principle Explain visuals with words in audio/text; not both Redundancy Principle Present words as audio narration, rather than on-screen text. Modality Principle Align words near corresponding graphics. Contiguity Principle Use words & graphics, rather than words alone. Multimedia Principle
  17. 17. <ul><li>How well does this comply with Mayer’s principles? </li></ul>http://www. everythinggirl .com/home/home.aspx
  18. 18. Principles of Instruction & Design - Prensky <ul><li>Reaction to psychologists’ views: </li></ul><ul><li>“ fundamental attribution error”: tendency for humans to explain human behavior in terms of the traits of individuals when powerful situational forces are at work. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Principles of Instruction & Design - Prensky <ul><li>Start with what is to be learned: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory, observation, dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process, judgment, reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second cut: student learning style. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Principles of Instruction & Design - Prensky <ul><li>Calls for total sea change: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get hip to jargon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change what and how we teach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get students using any & all technologies, yesterday! </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Principles of Instruction & Design - Prensky <ul><li>21st century content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtering knowledge, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximizing effectiveness of tech tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioethics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neuroscience </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Principles of Instruction & Design - Prensky <ul><li>This century is about “creating and inventing </li></ul>TOOLS ART VIDEOS WRITING PROGRAMS SIMULATIONS and sharing them in an increasingly connected world.”
  23. 23. Principles of Instruction & Design - Prensky <ul><li>Teacher: </li></ul><ul><li>facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>step aside for digital natives </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>negotiate a useful division of labor </li></ul>
  24. 24. Principles of Instruction & Design - Prensky <ul><li>Collaborate with students to develop rubrics & other evaluation tools </li></ul><ul><li>Turn them loose to create own learning products </li></ul><ul><li>Guide them in applying tech wisely to authentic problems </li></ul>Combine what learner enjoys with what learner needs to learn
  25. 25. Principles of Instruction & Design - Prensky <ul><li>Digital Game-Based Learning Principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Is it fun enough that someone not in target audience would want to plan and learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Do people think of themselves as players? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the experience addictive? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the players’ skills/knowledge significantly improving as game progresses? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the game encourage reflection about what has been learned? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Research Findings - Mayer <ul><li>HOW LIGHTNING WORKS studies </li></ul>
  27. 27. Research Findings - Mayer
  28. 28. Research Findings - Mayer
  29. 29. Research Findings - Mayer + hyperlinks and videos?
  30. 30. Research Findings - Mayer <ul><li>Mayer’s Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Impressive amount of research conducted by Mayer and associates over past 20 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple studies provide us with a hefty set of principles that can guide the use of multimedia to maximize learning results. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courtesy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Their work caution us to be judicious in our use of multimedia effects in order to maximize student learning. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Research Findings - Prensky <ul><li>Prensky’s Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Lightspan’s studies - more than 400 school districts (meta-analysis by Dr. Wm. Stock, U. of Ariz.) results on standardized tests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30% increase in no. of successful students compared to control groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary = 24% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language arts = 25% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Math = 51% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Algorithms = 30% </li></ul></ul></ul>Primary reason for improvement: use in the home to extend learning time
  32. 32. Research Findings - Prensky Click Health: NIH study: helped kids manage diabetes & asthma - Improved self-efficacy, communic.; decreased dr. visits Military: “ Rule of thirds” Use of tech-based Instruction reduces costs OR instruction time by 1/3 Scientific Health: Retraining kids with reading probs: 90% gains on achievement Tests (100 Mins. For 5-10 Weeks) Don Johnson, Pentagon: “ We’ve proven to ourselves that technology works. We’ve proven it academically but, more importantly, we’ve proven it operationally.”
  33. 33. Research Findings - Prensky Burger King: “ Whopper Challenge” El Pollo Loco: “ The Bagging Game” Norsk Hydro: “ The Farmer Game” “ Train Dispatcher” “ The Logger’s Game” 3M: “ The Glue Game” “ Build the Board” The Law: “ Objection” “ Strategy Co-Pilot” “ The Monkey Wrench Conspiracy” “ Full Spectrum Warriors” “ Angel Five”
  34. 34. Agreement: <ul><li>Learning is manifest in what students can do with their knowledge, not what they can memorize and regurgitate. </li></ul><ul><li>The interaction that multimedia can provide is a valuable asset for t & l </li></ul><ul><li>Increased student control of learning can result in improved learning (student-centered). </li></ul><ul><li>The teachers role: guide not depositor </li></ul>
  35. 35. Agreement: <ul><li>Despite attraction to tech, unbridled use of it at times impedes, rather than enhances learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection & evaluation by students is an essential part of preparing them for their futures. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of quality multimedia learning programs is a difficult task for individual teachers to accomplish on their own. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Who is who? <ul><li>MAYER </li></ul><ul><li>PRENSKY </li></ul>“ Digital Immigrant instructors, who speak an outdated language (that of the pre-digital age), are struggling to teach a population that speaks an entirely new language.” “ While it may be true that brain functions and learning processes change over time, we are talking generations for true learning dynamics to change.”
  37. 37. Which are you? <ul><li>Mayer? </li></ul><ul><li>Prensky? </li></ul>
  38. 38. What to do? <ul><li>Work to achieve a constructivist orientation to your classroom; the evidence for the engaged, student-centered learning is compelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Design learning that require students to understand, reflect on, evaluate and apply their learning to relevant situations. </li></ul><ul><li>When developing more traditional multimedia products (presentations, tutorials, illustrations, etc.) abide by the principles proven by Richard E. Mayer). </li></ul>
  39. 39. What to do? <ul><li>Continue to experience multimedia and technology wherever possible to assess where and how these tools can most effectively work in your classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment with the “division of labor” Prensky advocates. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Monitor the research on gaming; experiment with it in your classroom; compare it to traditional methods… </li></ul>
  40. 40. In other words, PLAY! <ul><li>Prensky 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Freddie Fish 4 download – Games 2 download </li></ul><ul><li>The Logical Journey of the Zoombinis (Video about it) </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White software ($25.95) http://www. runonfire .com/view. cgi ?D=Software&UPC=644247002436 </li></ul><ul><li>Mindstorms – What it is - http://en. wikipedia . org/wiki/Lego_Mindstorms </li></ul><ul><li>MIndstorms Autofabrik video http://www. youtube .com/watch?v=GQ3AcPEPbH0 </li></ul><ul><li>Imparta’s Strategy Co-Pilot – info - http://www. imparta .com/about/clients__and__impact/case_studies/abbey </li></ul><ul><li>Lemmings info & sample play - http://www. elizium .nu/scripts/lemmings/ </li></ul>
  41. 41. In other words, PLAY! <ul><li>Prensky 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Objection! Software ($116.10) - legal software http://www. blumberg .com/invoice. cgi ? rm=view_cluster ;cluster_id=154921 </li></ul><ul><li>Frogger – play online - http://www. freefrogger .org/welcome.html </li></ul><ul><li>Sonic the Hedgehog free download (MS-DOS) - </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptor - http://en. wikipedia . org/wiki/Sonic_the_Hedgehog_ (character ) </li></ul><ul><li>Purple Moon – for girls http://www. everythinggirl .com/home/home.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>Doom – free download for PC - http://www. freedownloadscenter . com/Games/Misc__Games/Dungeon_Runners .html </li></ul><ul><li> ca/english/games/privacy_playground/ </li></ul><ul><li>Thiagarajan, S. (2006). Freebies. The Thiagi Group Web Site. Retrieved December 19, 2007, from http://www. thiagi .com/ </li></ul>
  42. 42. In other words, PLAY! <ul><li>Cyberbee’s “Who Dunnit?” - http://www. cyberbee . com/whodunnit/crime .html </li></ul><ul><li>Cyberbee’s “Henry Builds a Cabin” http://www. cyberbee .com/henrybuilds/ </li></ul><ul><li>BBC history games http://www. bbc </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Cyberschool Bus games </li></ul><ul><li>National Geographic Kids games http://kids. nationalgeographic . com/Games/ActionGames/Recycle-roundup </li></ul><ul><li>Underground Railroad simulation http://www. nationalgeographic .com/railroad/ </li></ul><ul><li>National Geographic Classroom Resources http://www. nationalgeographic .com/education/ </li></ul><ul><li>National Geographic Explorer http://magma. nationalgeographic . com/ngexplorer/index .html </li></ul>
  43. 43. In other words, PLAY! <ul><li>Top 100 Interactive Educational Games (K-6) http://www. lethsd . ab .ca/mmh/games/top100.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Funbrain (kids of all ages) http://www. funbrain .com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Tap (lifelong) http: //eduscapes .com/tap/topic86.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Funschool (elementary) http: //funschool . kaboose .com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Planet (PK-6) http://www. learningplanet .com/stu/kids0.asp </li></ul><ul><li>Syvum http://www. syvum .com/online/ </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson County Schools Interactive Web sites http: //jc-schools .net/tutorials/interactive.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz Hub ($40, k-12) http: //quizhub . com/quiz/quizhub .cfm </li></ul><ul><li>Apples 4 the teacher (primary) http: //quizhub . com/quiz/quizhub .cfm </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Games http://www. primarygames .com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Dosity (mostly K-8, some up to adult) </li></ul><ul><li>I Know That (PK-6) http://www. iknowthat .com/com </li></ul>
  44. 44. In other words, PLAY! <ul><li>Gamequarium (K-6) http://www. gamequarium .com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Prongo (ages 3-12) http://www. prongo .com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Internet 4 Classrooms (K-8) </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy Center (4 languages, early childhood) http://www. literacycenter .net/ids </li></ul><ul><li>Kids& Teens School Time http://www. google . com/Top/Kids_and_Teens/School_Time/ </li></ul><ul><li>Money games for children http://www. moneyinstructor .com/interactive.asp </li></ul><ul><li>PlayToad (just for fun) http: //lan . playtoad .com/lpqueue/460/index.asp? SessionId=1dfda9e7-e73f-47ae-807e-f04dd1bdaccd & nat=1 &cc=us&cid=143945& lgid=375 &a=7344& f=game_kids &pop=2 </li></ul>
  45. 45. References <ul><ul><ul><li>Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2008). e-Learning and the science of instruction. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayer, R. E. (2007, December 11). eLearning excellence. Handout for Campus Technology Winter 2007 Conference, Westin-Market Street, San Francisco, CA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayer, R. E. (2004). Designing multimedia technology that supports human learning. In Blumberg, F. C.; Everson, H. T. & Rabinowitz, The design of instruction and evaluation affordances of using media and technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved December 19, 2007, from http://www. questia .com/library/book/the-design-of-instruction-and-evaluation-affordances-of-using-media-and-technology-by-fran-c-blumberg-howard-t-everson-mitchell-rabinowitz. jsp . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayer, R. E. (2003). Learning and instruction . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayer, R.E. (1999a). Designing Instruction for Constructivist Learning. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed), Instructional Design Theories and Models, Volume II. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayer, R. E. (1999b). Multimedia aids to problem-solving transfer. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 611-623. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. References <ul><ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2008, October). Digital natives, digital immigrants. From On the Horizon, 9 (5), NCB University Press; and Marc Prensky web site . Retrieved December 18, 2007, from http://www. marcprensky .com . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2007b). How to teach with technology. From BECTA’s Emerging Technologies for Learning, 2 . Retrieved December 18, 2007 from http://www. marcprensky .com . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prensky. M. (2007a). Changing paradigms. Educational Technology, July-Aug. Retrieved December 16, 2007, from http://www. marcprensky .com . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2006, Dec.-Jan.). Listen to the natives. Educational Leadership, 63 (4), 8-13. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2005). Engage me or enrage me. EDUCAUSE Review, Sept.-Oct., 60-64. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2001). Digital game-based learning. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2002). Digital game-based learning. Marc Prensky web site. Retrieved December 14, 2007, from http://www. marcprensky . com/dgbl/default .asp. </li></ul></ul></ul>