Islam

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Islam

  1. 1. Islam The Religion of Muslims
  2. 2. Basic Definition  Religion based on the messages received by Muhammad  Muhammad: man born around 570 CE in Mecca, believed by Muslims to be a prophet
  3. 3. True or False? 1. Islam is a polytheistic faith. 2. Followers of Islam are called Arabics. 3. A building for Muslim prayer is called a mosque. 4. Muslims are not allowed to drink alcohol. 5. Muslim women are not allowed to own property.
  4. 4. Muslim or not? 1. Shaq, basketball player
  5. 5. Muslim or not? 2. Dave Chapelle, comedian
  6. 6. Muslim or not? 3. Akon, musician
  7. 7. Muslim or not? 4. Janet Jackson
  8. 8. Muslim or not? 5. Everlast, musician
  9. 9. Muslim or not? 6. Mike Tyson, boxer
  10. 10. Two Ways of Life  Nomads  Sedentary Folks – Tribes – Farmers – Caravans – Merchants – Tents – Settled
  11. 11. Where did they meet?  Bazaars  Nomads traded animal products and desert herbs for goods like cooking supplies & clothing  Merchants sold spices, gold, leather, crops, and other goods
  12. 12. Star of the Caravan
  13. 13. Muhammad
  14. 14. Muhammad’s Life  Born in 570 CE in Mecca  Caravan driver until age 30  Muslims believe he was a prophet  Angel appeared to Muhammad  Teachings collected in Qur‟an  Made hegira from Mecca to Medina  Died at age 62
  15. 15. Arabia during his time
  16. 16. Biblical Lineage  According to Muslims, Muhammad is related to Adam, Noah, and Abraham  Thus, Jesus would be Muhammad‟s ancestor
  17. 17. What did he teach?  One god, “Allah”  Rich and poor should be equal  World has definite beginning and will end someday  Paradise is a beautiful garden  Allah will judge all people in the end  Guidelines for behavior & worship
  18. 18. The Qur’an
  19. 19. Qur’an: Sacred Book  There is only one God.  God will judge all people.  The good will live in paradise.  The bad will suffer.
  20. 20. Rules for Worship  Don‟t eat pork or drink alcohol.  Do ritual washing before prayer.  5 Pillars of Islam
  21. 21. Rules for Society  Slaves should be freed.  Women have the right to – own property – earn money – receive an education
  22. 22. Why do Muslim women wear the veil (hijab)?  Sumayya Syed, 16, says that what parents or men want have nothing to do with it…  She says it is a form of liberation (freedom).  When a woman is covered, men cannot judge her by her appearance but are forced to evaluate her by her personality, character, and morals.  "I tell them that the hijab is not a responsibility, it's a right given to me by my Creator who knows us best. It's a benefit to me, so why not? It's something every woman should strive to get and should want."
  23. 23. Jihad: Holy struggle  “To make an effort, to struggle”  Inner struggle people go through in trying to obey God & behave according to Islamic ways  Also, struggle to get people to convert to Islam
  24. 24. Sunnah  Way Muhammad lived  Provides a model for the duties & way of life expected of Muslims  Inspired 5 pillars of Islam
  25. 25. Shariah  Islamic law  Based on interpretations of Qur‟an and Sunnah, as well as human reason  Rewards for good behavior  Punishments for bad behavior
  26. 26. 5 Pillars of Islam  5 acts of worship required of all Muslims – Statement of faith – Prayer 5x a day – Almsgiving – Fasting – Hajj
  27. 27. 1st Pillar  Allah is the one true God  Muhammad is Allah‟s prophet – “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his prophet.”
  28. 28. 2nd Pillar  Prayer 5 times a day – Sunrise – Midday – Late afternoon – Right after sunset – Before bed
  29. 29. 3rd Pillar  Yearly donation to charity  Muslims pay part of salary to religious official  Money used to help poor, build mosques, or pay debts
  30. 30. 4th Pillar  Fasting: going without food or drink  Daily fasting during holy month of Ramadan, when Allah began communicating with Muhammad – No eating when sun is up  Reminds Muslims of all those who go hungry/thirsty in the world
  31. 31. 5th Pillar  Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca  All Muslims must make their hajj once during lifetime  Kaaba: Islam‟s most sacred place
  32. 32. Kaaba
  33. 33. Kaaba
  34. 34. Islamic Empires  Controlled much of Europe, Asia, and Africa  1400s to 1800s  Ottomans  Safavids  Mughals
  35. 35. Ottomans  Muslim Turkish warriors  Ruled land from Eastern Europe to North Africa and Arabia  Key to power: super army  Janissaries: slave soldiers who converted to Islam and became fierce  Gunpowder weapons  Mehmed II: built up Istanbul  Suleyman I: pushed into Europe
  36. 36. Safavids  Persian Muslims  Shia (Safavids): Muslims who thought only Muhammad‟s descendents should become caliphs  Sunnis (Ottomans): believed caliphs didn‟t have to be related to Muhammad  Esma‟il: spread Shiism  „Abba: strengthened military
  37. 37. Mughals  Turkish Muslims from Central Asia  Babur: established empire  Akbar: religious tolerance  Built beautiful structures like Taj Mahal in India  Hindus and Muslims could peacefully coexist in India
  38. 38. Taj Mahal, by Akbar
  39. 39. Islamic Contributions  Art  Science  Math  Literature
  40. 40. Art
  41. 41. Calligraphy
  42. 42. Muslim and Christian Images of the Creator
  43. 43. Architecture
  44. 44. Poetry influenced by Sufism Sufi poets often wrote about their loyalty to God: The mighty Mahmud, the victorious Lord, That all the misbelieving and black Horde Of Fears and Sorrows that infest the Soul Scatters and slays with his enchanted Sword. -Omar Khayyam
  45. 45. Famous Stories
  46. 46. Astronomy  Muslims greatly improved Greek astrolabe to figure out directions, location, & time of day  Observatories to study sun, moon, stars
  47. 47. Math  Combined Indian & Greek ideas to learn more about math  “Arabic numerals” are what we use today –123456789
  48. 48. Geography  Using knowledge of stars, explorers traveled throughout world  Ibn Battuta wrote about his travels to Africa, India, China, Spain in 1320s  Accurate maps were made
  49. 49. Medicine  Combined Greek & Indian knowledge with own discoveries  First pharmacy school to teach how to make medicine  Medical encyclopedia written  Treatment for smallpox
  50. 50. Philosophy  Sufism: movement that focuses on spiritual issues  Sufis believe they can find God‟s love by having a personal relationship with him
  51. 51. Whirling Dervishes
  52. 52. Thank you, Islam!  Write a thank-you note to Muslims for their contributions to – Art – Science – Math – Literature  At least ½ page  You have until the end of class

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