Montessori in America: A Century of Reform on the Margins Jackie Cossentino  Williamsburg Montessori/University of Marylan...
 
From European Import to American Export 1907 1960 present <ul><li>European movement established in Rome, London, Barcelona...
A Quick Chronology - Phase 1 <ul><li>1907 Casa dei Bambini  opens in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>1911 First  McClure’s  magazin...
The Problem of Translation
The school in Tarrytown
A Quick Chronology -- Phase 2 <ul><li>1952 Maria  Montessori dies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mario Montessori is ma...
Maria Montessori’s Death
Mario & Dr. Montessori, 1951
First meeting between  Nancy McCormick Rambusch and Mario Montessori In 1953, Nancy Rambusch met Mario Montessori at a Mon...
Nancy McCormick Rambusch Jubilee  (1959)
Whitby School
“ Americanizing” Montessori
Diffusion and Integration <ul><li>“ A major policy of AMS is to integrate Montessori into the country’s institutions; the ...
Montessori receives national attention NYT 5/16/65
<ul><li>1962 Tensions  between Nancy and Mario </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rambusch resigns as AMS President </li></...
Integrity and Control <ul><li>“ I am well aware of the differences between your point of view and that of more experienced...
American Tendencies <ul><li>The  Tinkering  Tendency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We love it, but we can make it better </li></ul...
Montessori Knowledge Base  Tensions and Tradeoffs <ul><li>TRADITONAL </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental </li></ul><ul><li>Cos...
Worldwide Montessori Diffusion
The Current Revival <ul><li>Dynamic Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly 4000 Montessori Schools in US </li></ul></ul><ul>...
What’s Next? <ul><li>Systemic School Reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement is the new bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
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Montessori in America

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Montessori in America

  1. 1. Montessori in America: A Century of Reform on the Margins Jackie Cossentino Williamsburg Montessori/University of Maryland Keith Whitescarver The College of William & Mary
  2. 3. From European Import to American Export 1907 1960 present <ul><li>European movement established in Rome, London, Barcelona, Amsterdam, India. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration, control by Montessori </li></ul><ul><li>American movement takes hold; rapid expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion, break with Montessori </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily a private movement </li></ul><ul><li>American version of movement exported to Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Renewed attention from public sector </li></ul>
  3. 4. A Quick Chronology - Phase 1 <ul><li>1907 Casa dei Bambini opens in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>1911 First McClure’s magazine Article </li></ul><ul><li>First American School in Tarrytown </li></ul><ul><li>1912 The Montessori Method published in US </li></ul><ul><li>1913 Triumphant US Visit </li></ul><ul><li>1914 Critic W. H. Kilpatrick, The Montessori System Examined </li></ul><ul><li>1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition, San Francisco. MM departs US forever. </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Problem of Translation
  5. 6. The school in Tarrytown
  6. 7. A Quick Chronology -- Phase 2 <ul><li>1952 Maria Montessori dies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mario Montessori is made General Director of AMI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1953 Nancy Rambusch discovers MM’s writings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins correspondence with Mario Montessori </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes Training in London </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1958 Whitby School is founded in Greenwich CT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Montessori appoints Rambusch AMI rep in US </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1960 AMS is founded </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington Montessori Institute organizes. Efforts to bring Margaret Stephenson to US begun and stalled. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Maria Montessori’s Death
  8. 9. Mario & Dr. Montessori, 1951
  9. 10. First meeting between Nancy McCormick Rambusch and Mario Montessori In 1953, Nancy Rambusch met Mario Montessori at a Montessori conference in Paris and discussed the possibility of starting a Montessori type school in the United States. Mario famously replied: Madame, there is no such thing as a Montessori type school; there is only a Montessori school. Nancy McCormick Rambusch, “The American Montessori Experience,” American Montessori Society Bulletin , vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 1-27. The quote is from p. 8.
  10. 11. Nancy McCormick Rambusch Jubilee (1959)
  11. 12. Whitby School
  12. 13. “ Americanizing” Montessori
  13. 14. Diffusion and Integration <ul><li>“ A major policy of AMS is to integrate Montessori into the country’s institutions; the family and public school. Otherwise, Montessori practices will never survive. </li></ul><ul><li>… .. the American Montessori Society has decided to go beyond AMI and try to integrate this special approach to early learning into the American culture -- which of all Twentieth Century cultures is the most interested in THE CHILD as part of its culture.” </li></ul>AMS Draft Statement, by C. Monson, 1963
  14. 15. Montessori receives national attention NYT 5/16/65
  15. 16. <ul><li>1962 Tensions between Nancy and Mario </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rambusch resigns as AMS President </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of US Montessori schools doubles - 26 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1963 AMI/AMS Split </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WMI becomes American arm of AMI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AMS continues to diffuse and promote </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1967 First Public Montessori School Opens in Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>1968 First AMI Public Montessori Opens in Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>1970 AMI/USA Established </li></ul><ul><li>1977 NCME Established to “unify” movement. </li></ul>Phase 2 Continued
  16. 17. Integrity and Control <ul><li>“ I am well aware of the differences between your point of view and that of more experienced Montessorians. </li></ul><ul><li>… .As you are aware, the only interest to AMI, and of me personally is to safeguard the integrity of Dr. Montessori’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>We do this by appointing either one or more Montessori experts around whom the Pedagogical Committee of the local society is built. This is our only concern.” </li></ul>Letter from Mario Montessori to Nancy Rambusch, 2/63
  17. 18. American Tendencies <ul><li>The Tinkering Tendency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We love it, but we can make it better </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Anti-Intellectual Tendency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone can teach; Keep it short and simple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Liberal Tendency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone should be served </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Exceptionalist Tendency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are special </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Montessori Knowledge Base Tensions and Tradeoffs <ul><li>TRADITONAL </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmological </li></ul><ul><li>Received </li></ul><ul><li>Radical </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRESSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent </li></ul><ul><li>Contested </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal </li></ul>
  19. 20. Worldwide Montessori Diffusion
  20. 21. The Current Revival <ul><li>Dynamic Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly 4000 Montessori Schools in US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000-2005 saw 32 research studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing American Importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools in 77 other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly 2000 schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further Splintering of the Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Public Montessori Schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>103 Montessori charter schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>249 fully public </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. What’s Next? <ul><li>Systemic School Reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement is the new bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence and Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Knowledge Base for Teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplinary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Knowledge about Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Research and Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crises in the American family </li></ul></ul>

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