Quest Ver2


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  • Quest Ver2

    1. 1. Questionnaires: Making questions answer questions
    2. 2. <ul><li>Sir Francis Galton, F.R.S. </li></ul><ul><li>is known as the father of the questionnaire. He was also a half-cousin of Charles Darwin, an English Victorian polymath, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, psychometrician, and statistician. </li></ul>
    3. 3. How to analyze When What Kind
    4. 4. One Best Source The British Medical Association, considered one of the most authoritative research organizations, publishes a peer-reviewed journal called BMJ (formerly British Medical Journal). In 2004 BMJ published a series entitled &quot;Hands-on guide to questionnaire research“.
    5. 5. When to Use Research Questionnaires
    6. 6. Best Method of Data Collection for Chosen Subject? <ul><li>Pre-requisites for using questionnaires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well defined concept of what information you actually want to collect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good grasp of the topical territory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When a questionnaire is not the best method </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Standardization <ul><li>Meaning of “Standardized” questionnaire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identical questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identical format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identical response recording process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardization creates reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use a non-standardized questionnaire unless you want unreliable results </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Can You Use Existing Designs? <ul><li>Published, authenticated questionnaires are invaluable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Already standardized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow comparison of your findings with other studies that used the tool. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves time of having to design and test a new questionnaire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> fulltext =Boynton+PM%2C+Wood+GW%2C+Greenhalgh+T.+Hands-on+guide+to+questionnaire+research%3A+reaching+beyond+the+white+middle+classes&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. How Reliable is the Design? <ul><li>Participants answers may not reflect reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Self-completed questionnaires on dessert intake only measure what participants say they have ingested not what has actually been consumed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must account for original context of questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Types of questions Open questions: answers not preset; allow participants to create own responses Closed: give participants options e.g. check boxes, mark a scale, select an answer from list, etc.
    11. 11. Pros and Cons <ul><li>Open questions: </li></ul><ul><li>pros: potentially unlimited range of answers </li></ul><ul><li>cons: more difficult to translate into data--takes a lot more time and effort to do </li></ul><ul><li>Closed questions: </li></ul><ul><li>pros: easy to convert answers to empirical data </li></ul><ul><li>cons: can be frustrating to participants, potential range of answers limited by researchers </li></ul>
    12. 13. Types of closed questions <ul><li>Statements with tick box categories </li></ul>□ yes □ no Please check the box that best agrees with your answer
    13. 14. 2. Numerical Rating Scales <ul><li>4 3 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Please indicate how convenient you find our new hours </li></ul>
    14. 15. 3. Visual analogue scales <ul><li>On the line below please indicate with an X how you have reacted to your new medication </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>You have just received a lesson in healthy eating. Please look at the faces above and pick the one that best symbolizes how you feel about this advice. </li></ul>4. Symbols
    16. 17. <ul><li>Before beginning study: </li></ul><ul><li>Budget both time and money </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on program and coding system </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s better to have fewer good quality responses than a high number that are inaccurate or incomplete.” </li></ul>Analysis
    17. 18. Descriptive Statistics ☛ Averages, Ranges, Ratios X # said X ☛ Complex comparisons Inferential Statistics Spearman's rank-order correlation . Pearson's coefficient of correlation Chi-square distribution
    18. 19. <ul><li>Simple interrelationships </li></ul>Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) multiple variables can be tested at the same time : 3 or more variants can be analyzed simultaneously with a pivot table Multivariant analysis ♀ responded X ♂ responded X
    19. 20. Methods section <ul><li>Details of exclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Data on refusal/unsuitable </li></ul><ul><li>State and justify statistical analysis used </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure results are hypothesis driven </li></ul><ul><li>Report non-significant results </li></ul><ul><li>Results section </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest what findings mean </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the questions participants refused to answer or answered in an unpredictable manner </li></ul>Discussion section
    20. 21. The End <ul><li>? </li></ul>? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?