INSAT-3D: migration from GEOSAR &
LEOSAR to MEOSAR
SAS&R stands for satellite aided search and rescue
It may be called as SARSAT(Search and rescue, satellite
The beginnings of SARSAT date back to October 1972.
The SARSAT system was developed in a joint effort by
the United States, Canada , and France.
In the United States, the SARSAT system was
developed by NASA.
Once the system was functional, its operation was
turned over to NOAA where it remains today
1. Search and Rescue (SAR) instruments are flown on
Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) and Geostationary Orbiting
2. ELTs, EPIRBs, and PLBs operation.
3. Signals to LUTS
4. The LUT processes the data and transmits an alert
message to its respective Mission Control Center
5. The MCC performs matching and merging of alert
messages with other received messages
6. The RCC investigates the beacon alert and launches
assets to find the parties in distress when necessary.
1. Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
2. Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs)
3. Personal Locator Beacons (PLBs)
6 channel multi-spectral Imager
Outgoing Long wave Radiation (OLR)
Quantitative Precipitation Estimate (QPE)
Atmospheric Motion Vector (AMV)
Upper Troposphere Humidity (UTH)
Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST)
Water Vapor Wind Vector
19 channel Sounder
Data Relay Transponder (DRT)
Search and Rescue Transponder
Temperature, Humidity profiles and Integrated Ozone
Geo-potential Height (GH)
Layer Precipitable Water
Total Precipitable Water
Lifted Index (LI)
Wind Index (WI)
Dry Microburst Index (DMI)
Potential Temperature Dierential
GEOSAR systems provide location information only if
this information is available from an external source (i.e.
global navigation receiver in the beacon) and
transmitted in the 406 MHz beacon message;
obstructions blocking the beacon to satellite link cannot
be overcome because the satellite is stationary with
respect to the beacon; and
the beacon to satellite to LUT communication link
budget is less robust than the LEOSAR system because
of the greater distances involved (decreasing the
probability that 406 MHz beacon messages are properly
detected by the GEOSAR system).
12 Ku-band transponders each with 36 Mhz usable
bandwidth employing 140 W Travelling Wave Tube
Amplifier (TWTA) with footprint covering Indian
mainland with an Edge of Coverage Effective Isotropic
Radiated Power (EIRP) of 51.5 dBW and Andaman &
Nicobar islands with an EIRP of 49.5 dBW
12 C-band transponders each with 36 MHz usable
bandwidth employing 32 W TWTA with footprint
covering Indian mainland and West Asia with an Edge
of Coverage EIRO of 40 dBW
6 Lower Extended C-band transponders each with 36
MHz usable bandwidth employing 32 W TWTA with
footprint covering Indian mainland and island territories
with an Edge of Coverage EIRP of 38 dBW and 37
Two-channel GAGAN payload operating in L1 and
L5 bands provides Satellite-based Navigation
services with accuracy and integrity required for
civil aviation applications over Indian Air Space.
Initial investigations identified many possible SAR
alerting benefits that might be realized from a
MEOSAR system, including
near instantaneous global coverage with accurate
independent location capability,
robust beacon to satellite communication links, high
levels of satellite redundancy and availability,
resilience against beacon to satellite obstructions, and
the possible provision for additional (enhanced) SAR
services, such as a ground to beacon return link.
Cospas-Sarsat is an international satellite system for
search and rescue (SAR) distress alerting that was
established in 1979 by Canada, France, the USA and the
43 countries and organizations share in the management
of the System.
At the end of 2009, more than 28,000 people had been
rescued through the use of the System.
Because of LEOSAR satellite orbit patterns, there can
be delays between beacon activation and the generation
of an alert message.
So we will move on the MEOSAR for fast and furious