Technology and Extension 06-06-07


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Technology and Extension 06-06-07

  1. 1. Technology and Extension: Current Status, Difficulties and Likely Solutions Dr.K.M.SinghDr.K.M.Singh Director,Director, Bihar Agricultural Management and Extension Training InstituteBihar Agricultural Management and Extension Training Institute (BAMETI), Patna(BAMETI), Patna Presentation in Meeting of Steering Group on AgriculturePresentation in Meeting of Steering Group on Agriculture State Planning Board, Soochana Bhawan, PatnaState Planning Board, Soochana Bhawan, Patna 0606thth June 2007June 2007
  2. 2. Technology & Extension: Historical Perspective Post independence, single minded focus on removing shortages and self reliance for basic cereal crops Research system served this purpose by delivering dramatic productivity increases by introduction of new varieties and use of chemicals for nutrition and protection Training & Visit (T&V) Extension system successfully managed technology transfer to the farmers It was believed that “Market Forces” could not adequately address the needs of both farmers and consumers. Regulatory framework was designed to circumvent the market
  3. 3. Historical Technology Dissemination Model • No market risk for the farmer – Support price system • Firm contract with the government • Neither the research system nor the farmer required any connect with the consumer and its demands. ICAR R&D system & Agricultural Universities Create Knowledge Extension Teams Farmer Information Flow Product Flow FarmerFarmer MandisMandis AggregatorsAggregators State Procurement System State Procurement System Processors Brand Marketers Processors Brand Marketers Distributor/ Retailers Distributor/ Retailers ConsumerConsumer Burdened with this baggage of historical success - search for the new paradigmBurdened with this baggage of historical success - search for the new paradigm
  4. 4. Why the need for the new paradigm?  Falling trend in growth rate of agriculture.  Productivity increases are not keeping pace with the rising population trends.  Falling water tables & rising soil salinity.  Soil degradation due to intensive chemical usage.  Piling food grain stocks and increased dependence on oil seed & oil imports.  Demand on R&D system to deliver as per "increased income aspirations” of the farmers.  India’s factor price advantage & diverse agro- climatic conditions, not leveraged to become a player in the international market.
  5. 5. Myths about Agricultural Technology & Extension  R&D System is not delivering  Extension system has collapsed  Need for increased role for private sector  Farmers are not willing to change  State Government are not responsive However the Reality is R&D system has the knowledge base but lacks means of transfer to the farm  Farmer is willing to change, can take technology risk provided he is insulated from the market risk.  No public support for new initiative leading to collapse of the T&V extension services.  Few Private sector players operating in limited pockets at best equipped to play the role of facilitators – NOT YET READY TO LEAD.  Some aggressive state agendas neutralized by inertia in other states.
  6. 6. Framework for Crafting the Research Agenda  R&D agenda should be driven by market demand. Links with the Private sector can fill in this gap.  Benchmark with the best in the world  Identify regions and crops where we can be better than the best  Evaluate nationally & globally available varieties to select candidates for propagation.  Adopt and develop package of practices which are locally relevant and within the resource base of the farmer  Maintain focus on optimizing water usage and rationalized chemical inputs to build sustainability  Public and private partnership with input companies on the basic research agenda. “Redefine research agenda to be in-tune with market demand & leverageRedefine research agenda to be in-tune with market demand & leverage India’s resource base on a sustainable formatIndia’s resource base on a sustainable format.” Only TECHNOLOGY which delivers HIGHER INCOMES for the farmers will SUCCEED!Only TECHNOLOGY which delivers HIGHER INCOMES for the farmers will SUCCEED!
  7. 7. A Possible Roadmap  Leverage Bihar’s diverse and favourable agro climatic conditions to create:  “Specialized” “Regional” production centers : Only way of maintaining competitiveness in a world focused on SPECIALIZATION!Only way of maintaining competitiveness in a world focused on SPECIALIZATION! Specialized Regional production centers RegionRegionCropCrop VarietiesVarieties Nutrition/Protection PlanNutrition/Protection Plan Farmer’s CapabilityFarmer’s CapabilityWater availabilityWater availability Market LinkageMarket Linkage
  8. 8. Technology Transfer Enablers Commercialization  Evaluation of promising varieties and hybrids- short listing selection  Blueprint for agricultural practices after adapting to local conditions, to suit intellectual & financial means of the farmer  Multi locational trials including at farmers’ fields  Evaluation of farmer economics model Technology Transfer  The extension services team - selection and training  Farmer education program  Demonstration farming R & D Activities  Ensure market and predictable pricing  Timing the harvest to optimize the returns  Post harvest management to ensure quality  Prompt farmer payment system  Ensure “adequate financing” to fund the inputs
  9. 9. What should be the pattern of engagement ? It has been seen elsewhere that successful commercialization of technology works because there is a demand. As yet, no established demand for Agricultural technology by the private sector. “Public- Private Partnerships” rather than pure “Commercial engagements” need to be developed. Involve private sector in drawing up specific work plan of research institutions. Leverage both public & private sector resources for reaching out to the farmer Government market interventions to support new technologies and diversification
  10. 10. Challenges before the Extension SystemChallenges before the Extension System To respond to food and nutritional security, poverty alleviation, diversifying market demand, export opportunities and environment Effective linkages between production and agro- processing for value added products Sustainable management of natural resources – land and water Public funding in extension is under considerable strain, getting private funds need of the hour.
  11. 11. But there are Constraints!  Extension programs heavily top-down: Extension field staff, primarily handing out central government funded inputs and subsidies, rather than assisting farmers to increase their incomes  By focusing on staple food crops, extension is mostly supply– driven rather than being demand– driven or market–driven  Lack of attention to farmer problems; extension system not accountable to farmers  Inadequate technical & managerial capacity, especially among the field-level extension staff posted in the districts and blocks  Absence of any mechanisms to empower farmers  Weak involvement with the private sector  Weak Research-Extension-Farmer-Market linkages
  12. 12. Key Elements of the New Strategy Shift from food security (i.e., Green Revolution) to diversifying into high-value products  Country now self-sufficient in basic food crops  There is a growing domestic market for high-value products; dairy, eggs, fresh fish, fruits and vegetables, processed food etc. To implement this new strategy, farmers had to be organized, trained and linked to these new domestic and international markets Implementing organization pilot tested under NATP was the Agricultural Technology Management Agency or “ATMA” (In Hindi, ATMA mean “soul;” therefore ATMA has capacity to become the soul of agricultural development in Bihar.)
  13. 13. ATMA was the Mechanism Used toATMA was the Mechanism Used to Decentralize Extension and DiversifyDecentralize Extension and Diversify Agriculture:Agriculture: Which is Critical to Building a “Market-Driven” Extension SystemWhich is Critical to Building a “Market-Driven” Extension System Regional and urban market opportunities tend to be “location-specific;” therefore, extension planning must be “bottom-up!” The ATMA model pilot-tested between 1998-2005; now the Government of India is implementing this “market-driven” extension or ATMA model nationwide in 252 districts and it is being up scaled to cover the whole country in the XIth Plan. All the districts of Bihar now covered under ATMA Programme.
  14. 14. Steps in Implementing the Strategy Conduct PRA and then develop a Strategic Research and Extension Plan (SREP) for each Project District Identify and evaluate “Success Stories” Determine most promising products/markets Organize farmers into groups Farmer Interest Groups (FIGs) at village level & Farmer Associations (FAs) at block, and Farmers Federations (FFs) at district & state levels Farmer leaders are critical to the success of FIGs Exposure visits and demonstrations are used to motivate FIG members. Investigate markets to identify interested manufacturers or wholesale markets (i.e., avoid traders; shorten the supply chain to avoid middlemen.)
  15. 15. Building Social CapitalBuilding Social Capital VIS-À-VIS MARKET DEVELOPMENTVIS-À-VIS MARKET DEVELOPMENT Two basic types: Bonding Research & Extension Bridging Local Markets Urban Markets Global Markets FIG FIG FIG FIG Farmer Federation FIG FIG FIG FIG FIG FIG FIG FIG FIG FIG FIG FIG Farmer Association FIG
  16. 16. Implementing the Strategy (cont.) Collaborate with research (e.g. SAUs or KVKs) to develop and test production and post-harvest technologies and then train FIG members to produce to contract specifications. Public-Private Partnerships are emphasized at block level; emphasis is on “contract farming” between FIGs and companies (e.g. Pepsi and Hindustan Lever are contracting for basmati rice and vegetables for processing)  Some other companies are doing this on a smaller scale in Bihar ( Aromatic crops, exotic vegetables, organic farming etc.)
  17. 17. Example-Lemon grass oil production Flow Chart Lemongrass Saplings from CIMAP, Lucknow or FFDC, Kannauj Root stock Growing in nursery in 1/5th area of intended crop Transplanting 6-8 month old plantlets in the field Harvesting for distillation every 2-3 months depending on growth of crop Field Distillation for Lemongrass oil every 2-3 months Up to 5 years Oil sold @ Rs.300/- per kg total oil yield 120 kg per year KVK recommends Krishna and CKP25 Varieties most suited Popularization and technical support from ATMA, Patna and KVK, Barh Oil sold to processors after 12 Months to 5 years 6Months9Months Up to 5 years 12-14Months
  18. 18. Performance Indicators of ATMA Programme in Bihar (Rs./ Household/Year) Impact Indicators Baseline* Actual* Absolute Income Gain In Project Districts 61256 68797 Absolute Income Gain In Non-Project Districts 60512 66951 Net Gain In Household Income In Project Districts household Over Non Project Districts household 744 1846 Per Household Annual Income Project Districts 89049 99423 Non-Project Districts 93542 85331 Cropping Intensity(%) Project Districts 145 196 Non-Project Districts 140 174 Benefits Of Adopting New Technologies (%) Increase In Crop Yield 13 Increase In Farm Income 15 * IIM Lucknow data on M&E
  19. 19. Conclusion: Key Elements of this NewConclusion: Key Elements of this New Extension StrategyExtension Strategy Refocus some research and extension resources to high-value crops/products, including market assessment Decentralize extension planning and decision-making; begin by focusing on local and regional market opportunities. Empowering Farmers—organize and train farmers so they can link to high-value markets; they must get organized to achieve economies of scale and to increase market power.
  20. 20. Reasons for Success Farmer friendly approach to ExtensionFarmer friendly approach to Extension Partnership with Private Sector ATMA Single Window delivery point for Technology. Diversification dictated by market demand only. Judicious Use of Mass media. R-E-F-M linkages strengthened with primary focus on farmer. Revitalizing the farmers through capacity building, Using farmers and private entrepreneurs as Extension Agents. Group focus in all the interventions. Effective use of NGO’s, & private sector. Sustainability given due importance, with cost sharing being the key word in most of the interventions.
  21. 21. ATMA Model : LessonsATMA Model : Lessons LearntLearnt  Autonomy, financial flexibility and direct fundingAutonomy, financial flexibility and direct funding resulted in better outcome.resulted in better outcome.  Better coordination, Convergence, pooling ofBetter coordination, Convergence, pooling of resources and integrated delivery of demand drivenresources and integrated delivery of demand driven extension.extension.  Priority settings through the farmers involvementPriority settings through the farmers involvement (SREP , GB and FIAC).(SREP , GB and FIAC).  Strong Research-Extension-Farmer-MarketStrong Research-Extension-Farmer-Market (R-E-F-M) Linkage.(R-E-F-M) Linkage.  ATMA an effective platform for Public-Private-ATMA an effective platform for Public-Private- Partnership.Partnership.  SREP as a tool for bottom-up planningSREP as a tool for bottom-up planning  Capacity building through need-based trainings,Capacity building through need-based trainings, exposure visits, demonstrations, etc.exposure visits, demonstrations, etc.