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OSI Model

Introduction:-The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference tool for understanding
data communications between any two networked systems. It divides the communications processes
into seven layers. Each layer both performs specific functions to support the layers above it and
offers services to the layers below it. The three lowest layers focus on passing traffic through the
network to an end system. The top four layers come into play in the end system to complete the
process.

The main benefits of the OSI model include the following:-

       Helps users understand the big picture of networking.
       Helps users understand how hardware and software elements function together.
       Makes troubleshooting easier by separating networks into manageable pieces.
       Defines terms that networking professionals can use to compare basic functional relationships
       on different networks.
       Helps users understand new technologies as they are developed.
       Aids in interpreting vendor explanations of product functionality.




                                              Seven Layers:-

                                                 1.) Application Layer
                                                 2.) Presentation Layer
                                                 3.) Session Layer
                                                 4.) Transport Layer
                                                 5.) Network Layer
                                                 6.) Data link Layer
                                                 7.) Physical Layer




                                                                                                  1
Layer 1 - The Physical Layer:-

Physical Layer is responsible for transmitting row bit stream over the physical cable. The physical
layer defines the hardware items such as cables, cards, voltages etc.

Components of the physical layer include:-

        Cabling system components
        Adapters that connect media to physical interfaces
        Connector design and pin assignments
        Hub, repeater, and patch panel specifications
        Wireless system components
        Parallel SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
        Network Interface Card (NIC)

Functions:-

The physical layer, the lowest layer of the OSI model, is concerned with the transmission and
reception of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium. It describes the
electrical/optical, mechanical, and functional interfaces to the physical medium, and carries the
signals for all of the higher layers. It provides:

           Data encoding: modifies the simple digital signal pattern (1s and 0s) used by the PC to
           better accommodate the characteristics of the physical medium, and to aid in bit and frame
           synchronization. It determines:

               o   What signal state represents a binary 1
               o   How the receiving station knows when a "bit-time" starts
               o   How the receiving station delimits a frame
           Physical medium attachment, accommodating various possibilities in the medium:

               o   Will an external transceiver (MAU) be used to connect to the medium?
               o   How many pins do the connectors have and what is each pin used for?
           Transmission technique: determines whether the encoded bits will be transmitted by
           baseband (digital) or broadband (analog) signaling.




                                                                                                   2
Physical medium transmission: transmits bits as electrical or optical signals appropriate
           for the physical medium, and determines:

               o   What physical medium options can be used
               o   How many volts/db should be used to represent a given signal state, using a given
                   physical medium

Layer 2 - Data link Layer:-

Data link layer is responsible for controlling the error between adjacent nodes and transfer the frames
to other computer via physical layer. Data link layer is used by hubs and switches for their operation.

Components of the Data link layer include:-
       Network interface cards
       Ethernet and Token Ring switches
       Bridges

Functions:-

The data link layer provides error-free transfer of data frames from one node to another over the
physical layer, allowing layers above it to assume virtually error-free transmission over the link. To
do this, the data link layer provides:

           Link establishment and termination: establishes and terminates the logical link between
           two nodes.
           Frame traffic control: tells the transmitting node to "back-off" when no frame buffers are
           available.
           Frame sequencing: transmits/receives frames sequentially.
           Frame acknowledgment: provides/expects frame acknowledgments. Detects and recovers
           from errors that occur in the physical layer by retransmitting non-acknowledged frames
           and handling duplicate frame receipt.
           Frame delimiting: creates and recognizes frame boundaries.
           Frame error checking: checks received frames for integrity.
           Media access management: determines when the node "has the right" to use the physical
           medium.



                                                                                                      3
Layer 3 - The Network Layer:-

This layer is responsible for translating the logical network address and names into their physical
address. This layer is also responsible for addressing, determining routes for sending and managing
network problems such as packet switching, data congestion and routines.

Functions:-

The network layer controls the operation of the subnet, deciding which physical path the data should
take based on network conditions, priority of service, and other factors. It provides:

           Routing: routes frames among networks.
           Subnet traffic control: routers (network layer intermediate systems) can instruct a sending
           station to "throttle back" its frame transmission when the router's buffer fills up.
           Frame fragmentation: if it determines that a downstream router's maximum transmission
           unit (MTU) size is less than the frame size, a router can fragment a frame for transmission
           and re-assembly at the destination station.
           Logical-physical address mapping: translates logical addresses, or names, into physical
           addresses.

           Subnet usage accounting: has accounting functions to keep track of frames forwarded by
           subnet intermediate systems, to produce billing information

Layer 4 - The Transport Layer:-

This layer is responsible for end-to-end delivers of messages between the networked hosts. It first
divides the streams of data into chunks or packets before transmission and then the receiving
computer re-assembles the packets. It also guarantees error free data delivery without loss or
duplications.

Functions:-

The transport layer ensures that messages are delivered error-free, in sequence, and with no losses or
duplications. It relieves the higher layer protocols from any concern with the transfer of data between
them                             and                              their                           peers.




                                                                                                      4
The size and complexity of a transport protocol depends on the type of service it can get from the
network layer. For a reliable network layer with virtual circuit capability, a minimal transport layer is
required. If the network layer is unreliable and/or only supports data grams, the transport protocol
should          include          extensive        error         detection         and            recovery.
The transport layer provides:

            Message segmentation: accepts a message from the (session) layer above it, splits the
            message into smaller units (if not already small enough), and passes the smaller units
            down to the network layer. The transport layer at the destination station reassembles the
            message.
            Message acknowledgment: provides reliable end-to-end message delivery with
            acknowledgments.
            Message traffic control: tells the transmitting station to "back-off" when no message
            buffers are available.
            Session multiplexing: multiplexes several message streams, or sessions onto one logical
            link and keeps track of which messages belong to which sessions (see session layer).

Layer 5 - The Session Layer:-

This layer is responsible for establishing the process-to-process communication between the hosts in
the network. The interactive login is an example of services provided by this layer in which the
connective is re-connected in care of any interruption.

Functions:-

The session layer allows session establishment between processes running on different stations. It
provides:

            Session establishment, maintenance and termination: allows two application processes on
            different machines to establish, use and terminate a connection, called a session.
            Session support: performs the functions that allow these processes to communicate over
            the network, performing security, name recognition, logging, and so on.




                                                                                                        5
Layer 6 - The Presentation Layer:-

The Presentation layer is responsible for protocol conversion, date encryption/decryption, Expanding
graphics command and the date compression. This layer makes the communications between two
hosts possible.

Functions:-

The presentation layer formats the data to be presented to the application layer. It can be viewed as
the translator for the network. This layer may translate data from a format used by the application
layer into a common format at the sending station, and then translate the common format to a format
known         to     the        application     layer       at      the       receiving      station.
The presentation layer provides:

           Character code translation: for example, ASCII to EBCDIC.
           Data conversion: bit order, CR-CR/LF, integer-floating point, and so on.
           Data compression: reduces the number of bits that need to be transmitted on the network.
           Data encryption: encrypt data for security purposes. For example, password encryption.

Layer 7 - The Application Layer:-

The application layer provides different services to the application. Example of services provided by
this layer is file transfer, electronic messaging e-mail, virtual terminal access and network
management.

Functions:-

The application layer serves as the window for users and application processes to access network
services. This layer contains a variety of commonly needed functions:

           Resource sharing and device redirection
           Remote file access
           Remote printer access
           Inter-process communication
           Network management
           Directory services


                                                                                                      6
Electronic messaging (such as mail)
          Network virtual terminals

                                         TCP/IP Model

Introduction:-The OSI model describes computer networking in seven layers. While there have
been implementations of networking protocol that use those seven layers, most networks today use
TCP/IP. But, networking professionals continue to describe networking functions in relation to the
OSI layer that performs those tasks. The TCP/IP model uses four layers to perform the functions of
the seven-layer OSI model.

The four layers of the TCP/IP architecture can be compared to certain levels of the OSI model. It’s
important to know what each level of the TCP/IP protocol architecture does, and how these layers
map to the OSI model. The Application Layer of the TCP/IP model performs much the same tasks as
the Application, Presentation, and Session layers of the OSI model. The Transport layer in the
TCP/IP architecture is similar to the Transport layer in the OSI model. This layer can use TCP or
UDP as well. The TCP/IP model uses four layers to perform the functions of the seven-layer OSI
model.




                                                                                                 7
Four Layers:-

   1.) Application Layer
   2.) Transport Layer
   3.) Internet Layer
   4.) Network Layer

Layer 1-Application Layer:-

The Application Layer in TCP/IP groups the functions of OSI Application, Presentation Layer and
Session Layer. Therefore any process above the transport layer is called an Application in the
TCP/IP architecture. In TCP/IP socket and port are used to describe the path over which applications
communicate. Most application level protocols are associated with one or more port number.

Functions:-

       Refers to standard network services like http, ftp, telnet as well as communication methods
       used by various application programs
       Also defines compatible representation of all data

Layer 2-Transport Layer:-

In TCP/IP architecture, there are two Transport Layer protocols. The Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) guarantees information transmission. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) transports datagram
without end-to-end reliability checking. Both protocols are useful for different applications.

Functions:-

       Manages the transfer of data by using connection oriented (TCP) and connectionless (UDP)
       transport protocols
       Manages the connections between networked applications

Layer 3-Internet Layer:-

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the primary protocol in the TCP/IP Network Layer. All upper and lower
layer communications must travel through IP as they are passed through the TCP/IP protocol stack.



                                                                                                  8
In addition, there are many supporting protocols in the Network Layer, such as ICMP, to facilitate
and manage the routing process.

Functions:-

        Manages addressing of packets and delivery of packets between networks
        Fragments packets so that they can be dealt with by lower level layer (Network Interface
        layer Network)

Layer 4-Network Layer:-

In the TCP/IP architecture, the Data Link Layer and Physical Layer are normally grouped together to
become the Network Access layer. TCP/IP makes use of existing Data Link and Physical Layer
standards rather than defining its own. Many RFCs describe how IP utilizes and interfaces with the
existing data link protocols such as Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, HSSI, and ATM. The physical
layer, which defines the hardware communication properties, is not often directly interfaced with the
TCP/IP protocols in the network layer and above.

Functions:-

        Delivers data via physical link (Ethernet is the most common link level protocol )
        Provides error detection and packet framing

                          Difference between OSI Model and TCP/IP Model

The Internet Protocol          Suite also known as TCP/IP is the set of communications
protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is named from two of
the    most   important      protocols   in   it:   the     Transmission        Control      Protocol    (TCP)   and
the    Internet   Protocol    (IP),   which    were       the    first   two     networking     protocols   defined
in this standard. IP networking represents a synthesis of several developments that
began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely the Internet and LANs (Local
Area     Networks),    which      emerged      in     the       mid-     to    late-1980s,    together    with   the
advent of the World Wide Web in early 1990s.

The Internet Protocol Suite, like many protocol suites, may be viewed as a set of
layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and


                                                                                                                  9
provides   a      well-defined     service        to    the   upper    layer      protocols     based   on     using
services from some lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and
deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into
forms that can eventually be physically transmitted.

The main difference in two models is:-

       The OSI model consists of 7 architectural layers whereas the TCP/IP only has 4 layers.
       OSI is a reference model and TCP/IP is an implementation of OSI model.
       TCP/IP Protocols are considered to be standards around which the internet has developed.
       The OSI model however is a "generic, protocol-independent standard."
       . TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer issues into its application layer.
       TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into the network access layer.
       TCP/IP appears to be a simpler model and this is mainly due to the fact that it has fewer
       layers.

S.no   OSI Model                                              TCP/IP Model
1      OSI       stand   for     the     open       system TCP/IP stands for transmission control
       interconnection. It is called because of it protocol/internet protocol. It is named
       allows any two different systems to after these two protocols, being part of
       communicate         regardless        of        their this model
       architecture.
2      OSI model has seven layers physical, TCP/IP Model has four layers host-to-
       data link, network, transport                session network layer, network transport and
       presentation and application layer                     application layer

3      Session and presentation layers are Session and presentation layers are not
       present in this model                                  present in this model

4      This model provides clear distinction This model does not                              provides clear
       between       services,         interfaces      and distinction between services, interfaces
       protocols                                              and protocols
5      In this model protocols does not fit well In this model protocols fits well in to the
       in to the model                                        model



                                                                                                                 10
6   OSI model supports both connection and TCP/IP     model      supports     only
    connectionless oriented communication connectionless      communication     in
    in network layer                      network layer




                                                                                     11

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Report of TCP/IP

  • 1. OSI Model Introduction:-The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference tool for understanding data communications between any two networked systems. It divides the communications processes into seven layers. Each layer both performs specific functions to support the layers above it and offers services to the layers below it. The three lowest layers focus on passing traffic through the network to an end system. The top four layers come into play in the end system to complete the process. The main benefits of the OSI model include the following:- Helps users understand the big picture of networking. Helps users understand how hardware and software elements function together. Makes troubleshooting easier by separating networks into manageable pieces. Defines terms that networking professionals can use to compare basic functional relationships on different networks. Helps users understand new technologies as they are developed. Aids in interpreting vendor explanations of product functionality. Seven Layers:- 1.) Application Layer 2.) Presentation Layer 3.) Session Layer 4.) Transport Layer 5.) Network Layer 6.) Data link Layer 7.) Physical Layer 1
  • 2. Layer 1 - The Physical Layer:- Physical Layer is responsible for transmitting row bit stream over the physical cable. The physical layer defines the hardware items such as cables, cards, voltages etc. Components of the physical layer include:- Cabling system components Adapters that connect media to physical interfaces Connector design and pin assignments Hub, repeater, and patch panel specifications Wireless system components Parallel SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) Network Interface Card (NIC) Functions:- The physical layer, the lowest layer of the OSI model, is concerned with the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium. It describes the electrical/optical, mechanical, and functional interfaces to the physical medium, and carries the signals for all of the higher layers. It provides: Data encoding: modifies the simple digital signal pattern (1s and 0s) used by the PC to better accommodate the characteristics of the physical medium, and to aid in bit and frame synchronization. It determines: o What signal state represents a binary 1 o How the receiving station knows when a "bit-time" starts o How the receiving station delimits a frame Physical medium attachment, accommodating various possibilities in the medium: o Will an external transceiver (MAU) be used to connect to the medium? o How many pins do the connectors have and what is each pin used for? Transmission technique: determines whether the encoded bits will be transmitted by baseband (digital) or broadband (analog) signaling. 2
  • 3. Physical medium transmission: transmits bits as electrical or optical signals appropriate for the physical medium, and determines: o What physical medium options can be used o How many volts/db should be used to represent a given signal state, using a given physical medium Layer 2 - Data link Layer:- Data link layer is responsible for controlling the error between adjacent nodes and transfer the frames to other computer via physical layer. Data link layer is used by hubs and switches for their operation. Components of the Data link layer include:- Network interface cards Ethernet and Token Ring switches Bridges Functions:- The data link layer provides error-free transfer of data frames from one node to another over the physical layer, allowing layers above it to assume virtually error-free transmission over the link. To do this, the data link layer provides: Link establishment and termination: establishes and terminates the logical link between two nodes. Frame traffic control: tells the transmitting node to "back-off" when no frame buffers are available. Frame sequencing: transmits/receives frames sequentially. Frame acknowledgment: provides/expects frame acknowledgments. Detects and recovers from errors that occur in the physical layer by retransmitting non-acknowledged frames and handling duplicate frame receipt. Frame delimiting: creates and recognizes frame boundaries. Frame error checking: checks received frames for integrity. Media access management: determines when the node "has the right" to use the physical medium. 3
  • 4. Layer 3 - The Network Layer:- This layer is responsible for translating the logical network address and names into their physical address. This layer is also responsible for addressing, determining routes for sending and managing network problems such as packet switching, data congestion and routines. Functions:- The network layer controls the operation of the subnet, deciding which physical path the data should take based on network conditions, priority of service, and other factors. It provides: Routing: routes frames among networks. Subnet traffic control: routers (network layer intermediate systems) can instruct a sending station to "throttle back" its frame transmission when the router's buffer fills up. Frame fragmentation: if it determines that a downstream router's maximum transmission unit (MTU) size is less than the frame size, a router can fragment a frame for transmission and re-assembly at the destination station. Logical-physical address mapping: translates logical addresses, or names, into physical addresses. Subnet usage accounting: has accounting functions to keep track of frames forwarded by subnet intermediate systems, to produce billing information Layer 4 - The Transport Layer:- This layer is responsible for end-to-end delivers of messages between the networked hosts. It first divides the streams of data into chunks or packets before transmission and then the receiving computer re-assembles the packets. It also guarantees error free data delivery without loss or duplications. Functions:- The transport layer ensures that messages are delivered error-free, in sequence, and with no losses or duplications. It relieves the higher layer protocols from any concern with the transfer of data between them and their peers. 4
  • 5. The size and complexity of a transport protocol depends on the type of service it can get from the network layer. For a reliable network layer with virtual circuit capability, a minimal transport layer is required. If the network layer is unreliable and/or only supports data grams, the transport protocol should include extensive error detection and recovery. The transport layer provides: Message segmentation: accepts a message from the (session) layer above it, splits the message into smaller units (if not already small enough), and passes the smaller units down to the network layer. The transport layer at the destination station reassembles the message. Message acknowledgment: provides reliable end-to-end message delivery with acknowledgments. Message traffic control: tells the transmitting station to "back-off" when no message buffers are available. Session multiplexing: multiplexes several message streams, or sessions onto one logical link and keeps track of which messages belong to which sessions (see session layer). Layer 5 - The Session Layer:- This layer is responsible for establishing the process-to-process communication between the hosts in the network. The interactive login is an example of services provided by this layer in which the connective is re-connected in care of any interruption. Functions:- The session layer allows session establishment between processes running on different stations. It provides: Session establishment, maintenance and termination: allows two application processes on different machines to establish, use and terminate a connection, called a session. Session support: performs the functions that allow these processes to communicate over the network, performing security, name recognition, logging, and so on. 5
  • 6. Layer 6 - The Presentation Layer:- The Presentation layer is responsible for protocol conversion, date encryption/decryption, Expanding graphics command and the date compression. This layer makes the communications between two hosts possible. Functions:- The presentation layer formats the data to be presented to the application layer. It can be viewed as the translator for the network. This layer may translate data from a format used by the application layer into a common format at the sending station, and then translate the common format to a format known to the application layer at the receiving station. The presentation layer provides: Character code translation: for example, ASCII to EBCDIC. Data conversion: bit order, CR-CR/LF, integer-floating point, and so on. Data compression: reduces the number of bits that need to be transmitted on the network. Data encryption: encrypt data for security purposes. For example, password encryption. Layer 7 - The Application Layer:- The application layer provides different services to the application. Example of services provided by this layer is file transfer, electronic messaging e-mail, virtual terminal access and network management. Functions:- The application layer serves as the window for users and application processes to access network services. This layer contains a variety of commonly needed functions: Resource sharing and device redirection Remote file access Remote printer access Inter-process communication Network management Directory services 6
  • 7. Electronic messaging (such as mail) Network virtual terminals TCP/IP Model Introduction:-The OSI model describes computer networking in seven layers. While there have been implementations of networking protocol that use those seven layers, most networks today use TCP/IP. But, networking professionals continue to describe networking functions in relation to the OSI layer that performs those tasks. The TCP/IP model uses four layers to perform the functions of the seven-layer OSI model. The four layers of the TCP/IP architecture can be compared to certain levels of the OSI model. It’s important to know what each level of the TCP/IP protocol architecture does, and how these layers map to the OSI model. The Application Layer of the TCP/IP model performs much the same tasks as the Application, Presentation, and Session layers of the OSI model. The Transport layer in the TCP/IP architecture is similar to the Transport layer in the OSI model. This layer can use TCP or UDP as well. The TCP/IP model uses four layers to perform the functions of the seven-layer OSI model. 7
  • 8. Four Layers:- 1.) Application Layer 2.) Transport Layer 3.) Internet Layer 4.) Network Layer Layer 1-Application Layer:- The Application Layer in TCP/IP groups the functions of OSI Application, Presentation Layer and Session Layer. Therefore any process above the transport layer is called an Application in the TCP/IP architecture. In TCP/IP socket and port are used to describe the path over which applications communicate. Most application level protocols are associated with one or more port number. Functions:- Refers to standard network services like http, ftp, telnet as well as communication methods used by various application programs Also defines compatible representation of all data Layer 2-Transport Layer:- In TCP/IP architecture, there are two Transport Layer protocols. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) guarantees information transmission. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) transports datagram without end-to-end reliability checking. Both protocols are useful for different applications. Functions:- Manages the transfer of data by using connection oriented (TCP) and connectionless (UDP) transport protocols Manages the connections between networked applications Layer 3-Internet Layer:- The Internet Protocol (IP) is the primary protocol in the TCP/IP Network Layer. All upper and lower layer communications must travel through IP as they are passed through the TCP/IP protocol stack. 8
  • 9. In addition, there are many supporting protocols in the Network Layer, such as ICMP, to facilitate and manage the routing process. Functions:- Manages addressing of packets and delivery of packets between networks Fragments packets so that they can be dealt with by lower level layer (Network Interface layer Network) Layer 4-Network Layer:- In the TCP/IP architecture, the Data Link Layer and Physical Layer are normally grouped together to become the Network Access layer. TCP/IP makes use of existing Data Link and Physical Layer standards rather than defining its own. Many RFCs describe how IP utilizes and interfaces with the existing data link protocols such as Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, HSSI, and ATM. The physical layer, which defines the hardware communication properties, is not often directly interfaced with the TCP/IP protocols in the network layer and above. Functions:- Delivers data via physical link (Ethernet is the most common link level protocol ) Provides error detection and packet framing Difference between OSI Model and TCP/IP Model The Internet Protocol Suite also known as TCP/IP is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard. IP networking represents a synthesis of several developments that began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely the Internet and LANs (Local Area Networks), which emerged in the mid- to late-1980s, together with the advent of the World Wide Web in early 1990s. The Internet Protocol Suite, like many protocol suites, may be viewed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and 9
  • 10. provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted. The main difference in two models is:- The OSI model consists of 7 architectural layers whereas the TCP/IP only has 4 layers. OSI is a reference model and TCP/IP is an implementation of OSI model. TCP/IP Protocols are considered to be standards around which the internet has developed. The OSI model however is a "generic, protocol-independent standard." . TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer issues into its application layer. TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into the network access layer. TCP/IP appears to be a simpler model and this is mainly due to the fact that it has fewer layers. S.no OSI Model TCP/IP Model 1 OSI stand for the open system TCP/IP stands for transmission control interconnection. It is called because of it protocol/internet protocol. It is named allows any two different systems to after these two protocols, being part of communicate regardless of their this model architecture. 2 OSI model has seven layers physical, TCP/IP Model has four layers host-to- data link, network, transport session network layer, network transport and presentation and application layer application layer 3 Session and presentation layers are Session and presentation layers are not present in this model present in this model 4 This model provides clear distinction This model does not provides clear between services, interfaces and distinction between services, interfaces protocols and protocols 5 In this model protocols does not fit well In this model protocols fits well in to the in to the model model 10
  • 11. 6 OSI model supports both connection and TCP/IP model supports only connectionless oriented communication connectionless communication in in network layer network layer 11