H Uman Development Report 1990

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HDR 1990, JIST historical Background

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H Uman Development Report 1990

  1. 1. Presented by : Mukesh Mishra 1
  2. 2. GLOBAL THEME CONCEPT AND MEASUREMENT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 2
  3. 3. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 1990 Human Development Report 1990, was launched in London on 24th May 1990, which addressed some of the concerns of contemporary era and explored the relationship between economic growth and human development. It challenged some of the conventional wisdom, blew up some of the old myths and reached to some important policy conclusions that would have significant implications for developing strategies for the next 3 decade.
  4. 4. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 1990 The report addresses , as its main issue, the question of how economic growth translate or fails to translate into human development. The report basically focuses on two aspects;  Putting people back at the centre of development process in terms of economic debate, policy and advocacy.  Emphasizing on enlarging the people’s choices 4
  5. 5. MAJOR CONTENTS OF THE REPORT The HDR 1990 is divided into four chapters, each dealing with different aspects of Human Development.  Chapter 1: Defining and measuring Human Development 5
  6. 6. Cont…  Chapter 2 : Human Development since 1960  Chapter 3: Economic Growth and Human Development  Chapter 4: Human Development Strategies for 1990s 6
  7. 7. Chapter 1: Defining and Measuring Human Development The report clarifies the meaning of human development as, it is a process of enlarging people’s choices. Enlargement of people’s choices is possible by expanding human capabilities and functionings, which ultimately enables people to;  lead long and healthy lives,  be knowledgeable,  and have a decent standard of living. Additional choices include political freedom, guaranteed human rights and self-respect. 7
  8. 8. Measurement of Human Development According to report Physical Quality Life Index( PQLI) is unable to represent the real status of human development so report further discusses about measurement of human development, proposing a new composite index :  Human Development Index (HDI) The HDI –Human Development Index- is explained as a summary composite index that measures a country’s average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: health, 8 knowledge, and a decent standard of living.
  9. 9. Chapter 2 : Human Development since 1960 The report summarizes the record of human development of several UN countries over the past three decades (i.e. since 1960s). The report primarily explains about disparities between developing and industrial countries in regards of GNP per capita, Adult literacy, School enrolment , Life expectancy and Access to safe water. The report further discusses about the pattern of migration and status of HIV/AIDS through out of the World. 9
  10. 10. Chapter 3: Economic Growth and Human Development In this section, report tries to clarify the association between economic growth and human development. Economic growth is just regarded as the means of human development not the ends. According to report “Economic growth is essential for human development, but to exploit fully the opportunities for improved well being that growth offers, it needs to be properly managed.” 10
  11. 11. Chapter: 3 cont….. Some important parts of this chapter are;  There is no automatic link between economic growth and human progress.  Social expenditures must be restructured to benefit many, rather than a few.  To avoid lasting damage to the human condition, macroeconomic adjustment are needed to restore growth that has fallen off. 11
  12. 12. Chapter 4: Human Development Strategies for 1990s Eventually, the report come up with several policy conclusions to setup further strategies for human development: 12
  13. 13. MAJOR POLICY CONCLUSIONS  In spite of income gaps existing between developed and developing countries , there is room for optimism with respect to the achievement in the area of human development.  Economic growth matters but growth does not automatically translate into higher level of human development ; redistribution of policies and equality of opportunities are important. 13
  14. 14. Cont…….  Poverty alleviation is very crucial for human development.  It is essential to create better database for human development indicators and very necessary to analyze the impact of polices and programs on people rather than production.  Scarcity of resources is not the main reason for deprivation in human development; most often it is due to misplaced priorities of the state. 14
  15. 15. CONCLUSION The report is basically focusing , the meaning and significance of human development approach as well as dealing with methodological issues of Human development measurement by introducing a new index called HDI (Human Development Index). The HDR 1990 was able to capture the attention of planners and policy makers to think seriously about this holistic approach of human development and restructure budgetary expenditures, including military expenditures, and create an international economic and financial environment conductive to human development. 15
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