TASKAssignment Topic“Socio – emotional development of students needs to be fostered and developed byteachers. This matter has to be addressed as it influences the motivation andlearning of students in school”.Task 1Elaborate the concept, stages and characteristics of children‟s socio – emotionaldevelopment based on the relevant theories.Introduction Emotion, referring to Cambridge Advance Learner‟s Dictionary, is referred asa strong feeling such as anger, love or strong feelings in general. Emotion alsodefined as the complex psychophysiological experience of an individual‟s state ofmind as interacting with biochemical or the internal and environmental or the externalinfluences. In humans, emotion process involves “physiological arousal, expressivebehaviours, and conscious experience.” Emotion also relate with mood,temperament, personality, disposition and motivation. Meanwhile socio – is a prefixthat related to society. Society is defined in Cambridge Advance Learner‟s Dictionaryas a large group of people who live together in an organized way, making decisionabout how to do things and sharing the work that need to be done. According toSantrock, 2007, socio - emotional is a process that is consists of variations thatoccur in an individual‟s personality, emotions, and relationship with others during onelifetime. Meanwhile, socio – emotional development is the development that includesthe ability to initiate and maintain secure relationship. Children who go through thisdevelopment will learn the way to approach the other children around them. Thechildren will also learn a lesson how to negotiate an issue with the other children.They also learn the methods in how to take turns and how to communicateeffectively with the surroundings.
Essay There are a few theories that are defined the concept of socio – emotionaldevelopment. The first one is the theory of psychosocial development by ErikErikson. In his theory, Erik Erikson stressed on the importance of social relationshipswith individuals in the children surrounding. He also added his stand on hispsychosocial theory by stated that the theory is majorly about the emergence of self,the search of identity, the individual‟s relationships with others, and the role of culturethroughout an individual life. Erikson has introduced eight stages of psychologicaldevelopment in his theory. All of the stages in this theory are interdependent. Thereare goals, concern, accomplishments, and risk in each of the stages according toErikson. He also said that each of the individual will confront a development crisisthroughout each stage. Each crisis will needs the individual to solve the crisis inparticular method and Erikson stated that the method or way the individual used toresolve their crisis will later affect the individual‟s self image and their views of thesociety. Among the eight stages in Erik Erikson psychological theory, we will see moreon the stage third and fourth as both of these stages are much related to childrensocio – emotional development. Stage three in Erikson theory is initiative versus guilt.This stage occurs within the children age of four to five years old. During this stage,the children will bring their self independence to the test. The children will confrontthemselves with new challenges that will spark the curiosity inside them and theywould want to explore more and investigate the challenge they facing. We can seetheir curiosity when they started to ask a lot of questions about their surrounding andalso ask for clarification for the new situation. The adults especially their parents andteachers need to give the children the support and opportunities they need so thatthis will encourage initiative inside the children‟s. Parents and teachers also need toinspiring children to appreciate the other children works. We should not restrictchildren from do the works that develops themselves because if they are restricted todo the activities on their own, a sense of guilt will develop in their own self which canbrings bad result to their mentally and physically growth. The children will believethat what they want to do is always „wrong‟.
Meanwhile, in stage four which apply within the children age from six toeleven years old, industry versus inferiority process takes place. According toErikson, this fourth stage of eight characteristic is all majorly about the developmentof children sense of competence or industrious. The word „industry‟ brings themeaning of success and recognition that the children have when they try new thingsor skills. The academic works that is relate to reading, writing, and mathematicalskills are the skill that the children need to have, gain and produce during this forthstage. Normally, the children in this range of age will learn and master these threeskills in their school. During the process of mastering those three skills, the childrenwill face some failure. If the children are not assists by the teachers to overcome thefailure and the feeling of the failure, it will lead the children to have the feelings ofinferiority and awkwardness not only to their own academic accomplishments butalso to their social interactions with the other children and also other people aroundthem. These are what the both stages of Erik Erikson psychosocial theory stated thatare related to children socio – emotional development. Other then Erik Erikson psychological theory, there is another theory that isrelated with the socio – emotional development of children. Sigmund Freud hasproposed his psychoanalytic theory of personality. He believes that the personality ofa person is affected by their psychosexual development. He had stated five stages inthe psychosexual development. There are two stages that are related to childhooddevelopment especially socio – emotional development. Both of the stages arephallic stage and latency stage. Phallic stage occurs when the children was three tosix years old. During this stage, the source of libido satisfaction began to move to thechildren sexual organ. This act caused the children to become alerts of their feminityand masculinity. Freud added that the male children will experience the Oedipuscomplex, where he will focuses his love toward his mother and will compete with hisown father for her loves and attention. Meanwhile, girls will go through the Electracomplex, which is contras to what the boys are undergo. Female will try to win theirfather loves and attention from their mother. The next stage is latency stage, whichoccurs in the ages of six until the children reach their puberty. According to Freud,children at this stage, their sexual feeling are suppressed to the unconscious level.The children will start to focus their mind on school and other activities. During thisstage also children will realize the roles of different gender and the only prefer to play
and have activities with their peers that have the same gender as him or her. Thisboth stage show how Sigmund Freud thinks of children psychosexual developmentwhich relate to children socio – emotional development.
Task 2Explain how teachers in school can assist students in their socio – emotionaldevelopment.Essay To help the students to develop their socio – emotional stage, teachers inschool must play a major roles assists them. Teachers must try to create aclassroom that is filling with the climate of trust inside it. Teacher must treat all of hisor her students fairly. Teachers cannot treat the students differently according totheir family background or status. Whether the students come from a rich family orthe poor, they must be treated fairly and no discrimination. Teachers must notcompare the student with the others but try to focus on their individualaccomplishments in class. Moreover, teachers needs to help their students toidentify their feelings and shows what they feel. Teachers can start with anintroduction a vocabulary of emotions and discuss emotional phrases from stories. Inclass, teachers can read their students one particular story than ask them to identifythe element of emotions in the story then discuss with the students what theemotions are and their understanding about the emotions. The student also must beencouraged by their teachers to write their own diary or journal about their ownfeeling and emotion. Teacher must keep the students privacy by safely keep theirjournal from other people. In particular scene, teachers must be clear and descriptiveabout their emotion and feeling in front of the students. A teacher has to assist and provide their students with the methods to dealwith their emotions. In the class, try to do a discussion with the students about theways and strategies to coop with emotions. Discuss and give suggestions analternatives method to deal with emotion like seeking for help, seeking for suggestion,asking for an answer, or trying to rationalize. After that teachers must be the rolemodel for their students. Teachers need to tell and show their students how theyconfront and solve the emotions such as anger, disappointment or their anxiety. Tohelp students develop their socio – emotional development, teachers in school alsoneed to assists students to identify their peers emotion. In some situation, teachercan carry out games in class where the purpose of the games to help studentsidentify or guess their friend‟s emotion. Ask the students to pair up then, one of them
make a random face impressions and the other one try to guess what his or herfriend feels at that particular time. Other than by playing emotion games, teacherscan used different learning aid materials such as reading materials such as booksand novels, visual materials like films and dramas, or role-play to help students torecognize the emotions of people around them. Other than that, teachers need toassist their students to detect the emotional expression within each culture in theirplaces. During the lesson, gives the students to write or talk about how they expresstheir emotions for each and every situation within their family institution. Thenteachers must show the students the right ways to realize and identify the emotionsof others because different person might have different emotion to express for theidentical situation. Erik Erikson also lists his suggestions for teacher to help their students todevelop their socio – emotional aspects. He lists his way for every stage in his theory.For school children, he has stated the ways to assists them in stage three and four ofthe theory. For stage three which is for children four to five years old, he has stated afew ways for teachers in school to assists their students to develop their socio -emotional development. First, teachers must praise and rewarding the students whohas the initiative to try a new skills. Just say praising word like “good job”, “way to go”and others can boost the students moral and self – confidence. They will becomeexcited for the next lesson in class. Teachers can make use of a developmentallyappropriate curriculum in classes to develop the student‟s skills. They also must givetheir students a chance to try new skills by preparing some skills – building games inclass. As teacher, we must attract students to ask a question regarding theknowledge and skills that they have learnt throughout the class. Plus, teachers mustgive them a simple and easy answer so the students can understand well. Otherthan that, teachers must let and give each of the students the chance to experiencesuccess and victory in education. The purpose of this ways is to boost their moralsand give them spirit to learn more in class and also to develop their socio –emotional aspect. Next, teacher also must bear and tolerant of the students failureand accidents in their works, especially their own works. So, by doing this, thechildren will never be demoralise and lose interest in study. For children in range of age of six to eleven years old, teacher mustprepare an academic exercise that is challenge their knowledge yet is suitable to
their mind ability. This will develop their socio – emotional aspect within themselves.After they have finished the exercise, if they achieve even a small one, teachersneed to congratulate and recognize them. Teachers can either gives verbal or writtenform of positive feedbacks to the students. Moreover, students should been given achance for them to share their skills that they has master with their peers. Teacherscan ask them to do a presentation in front of the class about their skill and effort toproduce new things. Students also need to get the encouragement from parents andteachers to set their own goal in life. A good teacher also can assist students in theirdevelopment by recognize their talents. Howard Gardner stated that, the talents orgifts in one self not only focusing on academic subjects, the talents can be on theother areas such as music, kinaesthetic, sport, interpersonal and intrapersonal. All ofthese are the ways that Erik Erikson hope can help teachers to assists their studentin their socio – emotional development in school.
Task 3Suggest and elaborate at least four teaching and learning methods which you canpractice in classrooms in developing positive socio – emotional development amongthe students.Essay As a graduate teacher, I also need to know how I can assist my students todevelop their socio – emotional development. So, I need to know and mastersuitable teaching and learning methods to be used in class. There are four teachingand learning methods which I hope it can help me in school. The first method is “roleplay”. This method is very useful and can be helpful for me to help children in schoolto develop the positive socio – emotional development inside them. To carry out thismethod, firstly, I need to divide the students into a small group that consist of two tofour students. The number of students in each group is depending on the number ofstudents in one particular class, so, if there are many students in a class, I will putfour students in a group and vice versa. There should not be over than four studentsin a group because if there‟s more than that, the students tend to talk more thanwork done. After all of the students have been divided into their group, I will give atask for them to perform a drama based on the fairy tales that they have learnt andread in literature subject in class. They can choose one story on their own and then Iwill ask them to perform the fairy tales in form of drama in the time given. From thisactivity, the students can learn how to act within the social community and can helpthem to develop their emotions. The method of “role play” also can build the spirit ofteamwork among the students in the class. Plus, this method of teaching ad learningcan contribute to the student socio – emotional development by improve theircommunication skills with their peers in school. The students will become aresponsible person rather than being selfish toward others. Moreover, this “role play”method can help the students to gain and boost their self - confidence and makethem into a student who is brave enough to speak in front of other people, in schoolor outside of the school. I can assist my students to develop their socio – emotion byusing this “role play” method in class. Other than “role play” method, I also can use the method like “project work” inclassroom to help my student to develop their socio – emotional development. Like
“role play” method, I will divide my student in to small group. Then, I will appointthem tasks, for example like ask them to choose one animal then they need topresent to the class what are the characteristic of the animal they have chosen onmahjong paper using their own creativity. In such way, this “project work” methodcan assist students to learn and master the skills of exchanging ideas between themand their peers in class. They also will learn how to give an opinion and appreciatetheir friend‟s efforts. This method also can help my students in their socio –emotional development. Another method is “enforcement”. It is one on the effective yet suitableteaching and learning method to be use in classroom. This method also likes theother, help to develop my student‟s socio – emotional development. This“enforcement” method can help students in class to develop their skills to do twodifferent tasks and activities that I‟ve provide to them in class. According to thismethod, students are being encouraged to finish the first task or activity before theycan move on the other task. So, if the students want to do the next activity, theyneed to finish up their first task before they can proceed. This method can developthe interest of the students to learn more and archive success in their study. Toenhance my students thinking skills and emotional skills, I will provide them achallenging tasks yet suitable for their level of thinking. I will make sure that thesecond task is more interesting that the first one so that it will boost my student‟sspirit and morals to finish the first task so they can proceed to the second task whichis more interesting. In addition, whoever students finish can the first task, I willreward them with chocolates or sweets and also I‟ll give them supportive words suchas “fantastic”, “good job” and so on. This will boost their interest to study more andincrease their commitment in doing the task that I give to them. “Enforcement”method also assists my students to develop their socio – emotion development. Thestudents will become responsible toward the task that being given to them and theywill try to complete in given time.The fourth method is “play and learn”. It is a creative method that I can use inclassroom and definitely the students will loves it. Students in primary school love toplay games. So, by using this method I can attract my students to learn more and tohelp them develops their socio – emotional skills. Student especially primary schoolstudents can easily get bored in classroom during the lesson session. This is
because they can‟t coop with the method of teaching by some teacher which isunsuitable and boring. The children lose the focus thus; they will not have enoughmoral to continue their studies in class. To avoid this from happen, I‟ll use thiscreative and interesting method during the lesson session. Fun and interestinglearning about the topic can be applied to attract students to involve in classactivities and they would gain the knowledge in a fun way. This kind of teaching andlearning method can be conduct in classroom because I can use some games whichis related to the subject. It‟s also will gives my student a very relax learning processand assist them to digest the knowledge they‟ve gain easily without any stressfulfeeling. Examples of games that can be play in classroom are, scrabble, puzzle,congkak and word building. These activities can enhance the students thinking skillsand communicative skills. It‟s also help to develop their interaction and strengthenthe bonds between my students. All of these four methods of teaching and learningcan help me during my time at school after this. It does also can help me to assistmy students in developing their socio – emotional development.
Conclusion In conclusion, it is essential for teachers in school to assist their students atschool to develop their socio – emotional development within themselves. Thecombination of academic and socio – emotional learning is the most promising wayto accomplish the student‟s physical and mental developments. The task to assiststhem is not an easy. An educator must be ready in mentally and physically aspect. Ifnot, the students would have the difficulty to develop their skills. Other than theirparents, they also need teachers to help them to develop. Teachers has bigresponsibility toward their students development so, it needs our great effort to helpour students.