CODE_Assessment for Flexible Learning


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  • what the learner does in flexible learning rather than what the teacher does in face-to-face teaching.
  • CODE_Assessment for Flexible Learning

    1. 1. Designing Learning-oriented Assessment for Flexible Learning and Teaching <ul><li>Professor Mike Keppell </li></ul><ul><li>Director, The Flexible Learning Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Sturt University </li></ul>
    2. 2. Charles Sturt University Multiple campuses across regional NSW
    3. 3. About CSU Charles Sturt University Regional University Multiple Campuses Nine Campuses (NSW & Canada) Four Faculties Arts, Business, Education, Science 24 Schools Focus on Professions
    4. 4. About CSU - 2010 Total students 37,964 Domestic 32,645 International 5,319 On campus 9,568 Distance education 23,367 Mixed mode 5,029 Academic staff 672 General staff 1144 Courses/Degrees 400
    5. 5. Overview <ul><li>Context for distance learners </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular landscape of distance learners </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of assessment for distance learners </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment-as-learning for distance learners </li></ul><ul><li>Design of learning-oriented assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges of learning-oriented assessment </li></ul>
    6. 6. Context for Distance Learners <ul><li>Off-campus and on-campus experience </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquity of ‘places’ and ‘spaces’ of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible learning options </li></ul><ul><li>Life-wide and life-long learning </li></ul>
    7. 7. Context for Distance Learners <ul><li>Growing acceptance that learning occurs in different ‘places’ - on-campus/off-campus </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches emerging include ‘flexible’, ‘open’, ‘distance’ and ‘off-campus’ that assist the ubiquity of learning in a wide range of contexts (Lea & Nicholl, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Growing acceptance of life-long and life-wide learning. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Flexible Learning... <ul><li>...provides opportunities to improve the student learning experience through flexibility in time, pace, place (physical, virtual, on-campus, off-campus), mode of study (print-based, face-to-face, blended, online), teaching approach (collaborative, independent), forms of assessment and staffing . It may utilise a wide range of media, environments, learning spaces and technologies for learning and teaching. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Blended & Flexible Learning... <ul><li> a design approach that examines the relationships between flexible learning opportunities, in order to optimise student engagement and equivalence in learning outcomes regardless of mode of study (Keppell, 2010, p. 3). </li></ul>
    10. 10. Curricular Landscape of Distance Learners <ul><li>Contemporary curriculum needs to be designed to account for a variety of perspectives so that distance learners can engage as successful learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Designing curriculum through multiple perspectives ensures that the different circumstances of the distance learner are considered in a thoughtful and considered way. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Perspectives <ul><li>Multi-literacies </li></ul><ul><li>ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul>Learning spaces Pedagogy
    12. 12. Physical Virtual Formal Informal Informal Formal Blended Mobile Personal Outdoor Professional Practice Distributed Learning Spaces Academic
    13. 13. Pedagogy & Multi-literacies <ul><li>Designing curricular from a pedagogical perspective directly influences assessment design. </li></ul><ul><li>Designing curricular from a multi-literacies perspective embeds teacher and student digital interactions into the curriculum. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Informal Virtual Learning Spaces Informal Formal Virtual Learning Spaces ICT
    15. 15. Interactions <ul><li>Information access (subject expectations) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive learning (learner-to-content interactions) </li></ul><ul><li>Networked learning (learner-to-learner, learner-to-teacher interactions) </li></ul><ul><li>User-generated content (learners-as-designers, assessment-as-learning) (Herrington & Oliver, 2001). </li></ul>
    16. 16. Assessment 2020 <ul><li>Assessment has been most effective when: </li></ul><ul><li>assessment is used to engage students in learning that is productive </li></ul><ul><li>feedback is used to actively improve student learning </li></ul><ul><li>students and teachers become responsible partners in learning and assessment </li></ul><ul><li>students are inducted into the assessment practices and cultures of higher education </li></ul>
    17. 17. Assessment 2020 <ul><li>assessment for learning is placed at the centre of subject and program design </li></ul><ul><li>assessment for learning is a focus for staff and institutional development </li></ul><ul><li>assessment provides inclusive and trustworthy representation of student achievement (Boud & Associates, 2010). </li></ul>
    18. 18. Learning-oriented Assessment <ul><li>Putting learning at the centre of assessment and reconfiguring assessment design so that the learning function is emphasised. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Learning-oriented assessment Assessment tasks as learning tasks Student involvement in assessment processes Forward-looking feedback
    20. 20. <ul><ul><li>Assessment tasks determine student effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While students are focussed on the learning task they also fulfil the measurement requirement of the subject/curriculum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks should require distribution of student time and effort throughout, not just short bursts of energy towards the end (Gibbs & Simpson, 2004) </li></ul></ul>Assessment Tasks as Learning Tasks
    21. 21. Student Involvement in Assessment <ul><ul><li>Students begin to learn about assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students begin to determine the quality of their own work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students learn about reflection, peer feedback and self-evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some degree of student choice in assessment tasks. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Forward-looking Feedback <ul><ul><li>Students need to receive appropriate feedback which they can use to ‘feed forward’ into future work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback should be less final and judgemental (Boud, 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback should be more interactive and forward-looking (Carless, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback should be timely and with a potential to be acted upon (Gibbs & Simpson, 2004) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Designing Learning Resources <ul><ul><li>This subject was designed to allow Hong Kong students to bring together, in a coherent manner, the processes of analysis, design, production and evaluation of learning resources. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Authentic Task <ul><ul><li>The group project provided an opportunity to apply principles and skills learned in the subject. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs analysis & Concept map - visual map of project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 10 original photographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One digital learning resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 minute presentation about the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written Report </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Teacher feedback - Verbal Peer feedback - Verbal Feedback as feed-forward 1. Authentic Task 2. Criteria - Rubric 3. Needs Analysis 4. Concept Map 5. Student Presentation 6. Learning Resource Student feedback - Verbal Teacher feedback - Written Needs analysis Concept map Digital learning resource Report Feedback as feed-forward Assessment AS learning task Students as self-evaluators
    26. 26. ePortfolios in Assessment <ul><ul><li>Embedding the use of an ePortfolio into the Bachelor of Education (Early Childhood and Primary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ePortfolio would be iteratively designed throughout the four years of study </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Types and Purposes of ePortfolios <ul><ul><li>Assessment - formative and summative, learning-oriented, feed-forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showcase ‘best’ work to peers, teachers, potential employers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development over time to show changes in thinking. They also provide a ‘snapshot’ of capability at a certain time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective - personal and professional, critical/analytical as opposed to descriptive (Stefani, Mason & Pegler, 2007) </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Embedding of ePortfolios <ul><ul><li>Different purposes of ePortfolios at different year levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1st year - development/showcase/assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd year - reflection/assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd year - development - self-directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4th year - showcase and leadership </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. First Year Activities <ul><li>Reflection on Graduate Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Contract: filling the perceived gaps – self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>Course outcomes – reflection on how 1st semester study demonstrated progression. </li></ul>
    30. 30.
    31. 31.
    32. 32. Characteristics of the Assessment Task <ul><li>Alignment of learning outcomes, content and assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of student time and effort throughout degree program </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of student choice in assessment task </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between assessment task and real-world task </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio could be utilised for different purposes </li></ul>
    33. 33. Challenges - Learning Design <ul><li>Design of authentic, real-world assessment tasks requires a knowledge of learning outcomes and student-centred pedagogy e.g project-based, problem-based activities </li></ul>
    34. 34. Challenges - Learning Design <ul><li>Learning design is defined as: “a methodology for enabling teachers/designers to make more informed decisions in how they go about designing learning activities and interventions, which is pedagogically informed and makes effective use of appropriate resources and technologies” (Conole forthcoming, 2012, p. 8). </li></ul>
    35. 35. Multi-literacies <ul><li>Wide range of skills that allow the user to to locate, evaluate, organise, analyse and utilise knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Formal literacy, disciplinary literacy, socio-cultural literacy, information literacy. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Accountability and Trust <ul><li>Accountability of assessment practices is common due to the need for standards </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism and a lack of trust may influence the types of assessment undertaken </li></ul>
    37. 37. Group Projects <ul><li>Equitable contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Peer assessment of other students may send mixed signals </li></ul><ul><li>Peer learning and peer assessment are about students providing feedback to each other </li></ul>
    38. 38. Conclusion - Key Principles <ul><li>Assessment tasks as learning tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Student involvement in the assessment processes </li></ul><ul><li>Forward-looking feedback </li></ul>
    39. 39. FLI Website: FLI Blog: http:// / FLI Twitter: http:// FLI Delcious: FLI Design: FLI YouTube: Mike ’s Slideshare: Mike ’s Blog: http://mike- /