Affordances of Physical and Virtual Learning Spaces


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  • Thank you Mike for sharing. The book is very impressive. I found it very relevant to the PBL pedagogy here we implement in Denmark with different synonyms e.g. Problem Oriented Project Pedagogy, Project Organized Studies, PBL Aalborg Model. It is still a challenge of implementing ICT (to be more specific CMC for my case) to support students' learning when pedagogy influences the way students adopt technologies for their learning to construct their learning place for the provided and self-acquired spaces. In the PBL here, which participant-directed is one of the main characteristics of the pedagogy, for learning tools also we tend to leave students to subscribe to free-subscribed web 2.0 tools on the software market, instead of providing them.
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Affordances of Physical and Virtual Learning Spaces

  1. 1. AFFORDANCES OF PHYSICAL AND VIRTUAL LEARNING SPACES Professor Mike Keppell Professor of Higher Education President, ascilite Director, The Flexible Learning Institute Charles Sturt University Wednesday, 21 July 2010 1
  2. 2. Overview Assumptions Principles Learning spaces? Subject Interactions Diversity of learning spaces Blended learning spaces Affordances Putting it all together Wednesday, 21 July 2010 2
  3. 3. Assumptions Universities value and seek to inculcate the skills essential for lifelong and life wide learning, producing graduates who will continue to develop intellectually, professionally and socially beyond the bounds of formal education. Universities believe that programs, services and teaching methods should be responsive to the diverse cultural, social and academic needs of students, enabling them to adapt to the demands of university education and providing them with the cultural capital for life success. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 3
  4. 4. Higher Education Principles Equivalence of Learning Outcomes ethical obligations traverses physical, Student Learning Experience blended and virtual learning spaces learning outcomes, subject, degree Constructive Alignment program, generic attributes specific needs of Discipline Pedagogies disciplines Wednesday, 21 July 2010 4
  5. 5. Learning Spaces? Physical, blended or virtual learning environments that enhance as opposed to constraining learning Physical, blended or virtual ‘areas’ that motivate a user to participate for learning benefits Spaces where both teachers and students optimize the perceived and actual affordances of the space Spaces that promote authentic learning interactions Wednesday, 21 July 2010 5
  6. 6. Subject Interactions Information access (subject expectations) Interactive learning (learner-to-content interactions): Networked learning (learner-to-learner, learner- to-teacher interactions) User-generated content (learners-as-designers, assessment-as-learning) (Herrington & Oliver, 2001). Wednesday, 21 July 2010 6
  7. 7. Diversity of Learning Spaces Physical Blended Virtual Formal Informal Formal Informal Mobile Personal Professional Outdoor Practice Wednesday, 21 July 2010 7
  8. 8. Physical Learning Spaces Formal physical learning spaces Informal physical learning spaces Independent learning Peer learning Study-time and space Need to be adaptable and flexible for learning and teaching as opposed to being designed for one purpose Wednesday, 21 July 2010 8
  9. 9. Formal & Informal Spaces Wednesday, 21 July 2010 9
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  15. 15. Virtual Learning Spaces Formal virtual learning spaces Informal virtual learning spaces Independent learning Peer learning Wednesday, 21 July 2010 15
  16. 16. Formal Virtual Informal Virtual Learning Spaces Learning Spaces Blackboard Facebook WebCT Flickr Moodle YouTube Twitter Sakai Formal Formal I Informal Informal Wednesday, 21 July 2010 16
  17. 17. Personal Learning Spaces Wednesday, 21 July 2010 17
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  20. 20. Mobile Learning Spaces Is mobile learning just part of everyday learning? (ALT-J Vol 17, No.3) GPS, wi-fi, mp3 players “Learning when mobile means that context becomes all-important since even a simple change of location is an invitation to revisit learning” (p.159) Extending lecturers personal ‘presence’ Disruption of users’ presence using SMS (Corneulius & Marston, 2009). Wednesday, 21 July 2010 20
  21. 21. Outdoor Learning Spaces These pathways, thoroughfares and occasional rest areas are generally given a functional value in traffic management and are more often than not developed as an after thought in campus design. As such the thoroughfares and rest areas are under valued (or not recognized) as important spaces for teaching and learning (Rafferty, 2009). Wednesday, 21 July 2010 21
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  26. 26. Blended Learning? “It is a design approach whereby both face-to-face and online learning are made better by the presence of each other” (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008, p.5). “It is a complete rethinking and redesign of the educational environment and learning experience” (p.x) Is blended learning the future of higher education? Wednesday, 21 July 2010 26
  27. 27. Activity-level Blending Student Resources Resources Instructor Role Assessment Role (Content) (Services) Allocate reading. Ask Some students to read Read discussion Off-line required reading respective Reading about topic in and post chapter face-to-face summary in class LMS Feedback from Post a one peers in online Student and paragraph discussion. instructor summary and Discussion Feedback from Online Facilitator posts in comment on forum instructor in discussion two other online forum posts discussion forum. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 27
  28. 28. Subject & Course Level Blending Subject-level blending: One of the most common forms. Distinct face-to-face and online components to support learning outcomes. Degree-level blending: Different learning experiences using physical and virtual spaces across the degree program. Use of e-portfolio in key subjects throughout degree. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 28
  29. 29. Paradigms of Blended Learning Enabling blends: These address access and equity issues. Provision of equivalent learning outcomes in physical, virtual and blended learning environments. Enhancing blends: Incremental changes to the pedagogy in face-to-face, virtual and blended learning environments. Transforming blends: Major redesign of pedagogy e.g. Blended problem-based learning (Graham, 2006). Wednesday, 21 July 2010 29
  30. 30. Flexibility of Learning Spaces Flexible learning and teaching spaces allow adaptability over time for different uses. Spaces need to be used for students who are both physically present and students who never visit the campus. In addition homes, cars, buses, hotels, cafes become mobile spaces where the student undertakes learning. Studying subject materials while travelling to work via train or bus may represent the learning space for some students Wednesday, 21 July 2010 30
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  33. 33. Study, Time & Space In addition to the notion of physical/virtual and formal/informal, the concept of time also needs to be considered. Students’ use of space during a semester will be influenced by time of day, day of week and week of semester. Students may utilize space dependent on their other constraints of work and family and timing of classes and travel. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 33
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  35. 35. Study, Time & Space Students may have only certain days to study. Early stages of a subject may encourage students to discuss content with other peers, while group assessment tasks will also require students to work in teams and use space for discussion and negotiation. When exams are nearing, students may revert to quiet individual spaces for self-study as opposed to peer learning. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 35
  36. 36. What are Affordances? When you first see something you have never seen before, how do you know what to do? “An affordance is the design aspect of an object which suggests how the object should be used” (Norman, 1988). Determined by context, culture, instinct, mental model e.g. hyperlinked text on website When designers make use of affordances the user knows what to do just by looking Wednesday, 21 July 2010 36
  37. 37. Learning Space Affordance Example Face-to-Face oral communication oral feedback to a Teaching & Learning question information access subject outline Learning interactive learning multimedia Management networked learning forum Systems materials development project discussion about Learning Commons informal learning lecture peer learning Wednesday, 21 July 2010 37
  38. 38. Learning Space Affordance Example discussion of in-depth group reading Tutorial discussion discussion of peer learning presentation practical work peer interaction practical work on Residential School sense of belonging to IT networks university authentic learning community of applied learning in Practice practice discipline mentor/mentee Wednesday, 21 July 2010 38
  39. 39. Putting it all together Wednesday, 21 July 2010 39
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  43. 43. 2010 Book Physical and Virtual Learning Spaces in Higher Education: Concepts for the Modern Learning Environment A book edited by Professor Mike Keppell Associate Professor Kay Souter & Matthew Riddle Charles Sturt University, Australia Latrobe University, Australia Wednesday, 21 July 2010 43