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  1. 1. Using Design-based Research to Transform Technology Use in Flexible Learning and Teaching Professor Mike Keppell Executive Director Australian Digital Futures Institute 1Tuesday, 6 November 12 1
  2. 2. Overview ‣ My Background ‣ Defining design-based research ‣ Characteristics of design-based research ‣ ‘Many names’ of design-based research ‣ Example projects ‣ Five-year Teaching Fellowship Scheme ‣ ADFI and design-based research 2Tuesday, 6 November 12 2
  3. 3. Background ‣ Instructional design ‣ Higher education ‣ Adult learning ‣ Educational technology ‣ Lifelong learning ‣ Learning and teaching ‣ Worked at five different universities in leadership roles. 3Tuesday, 6 November 12 3
  4. 4. Focus Design Educational Technology Innovation Solving Authentic Learning real-world Interactions issues Transformation 4Tuesday, 6 November 12 4
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  7. 7. Defining design-based research ‣ Design-based research is a core strategy and approach that considers how our developments benefit the user, group or society and how our developments provide design principles for future practice and research. ‣ Design-based research advances design, research and practice concurrently (Wang and Hannafin, 2005). ‣ 7Tuesday, 6 November 12 7
  8. 8. Defining design-based research ‣ Wang and Hannafin (2005) define design- based research as: ‣ “a systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to contextually sensitive design principles and theories” (p. 7). 8Tuesday, 6 November 12 8
  9. 9. Characteristics ‣ Pragmatic - solving current real-world problems by designing and carrying out interventions as well as extending theories and refining principles. ‣ Grounded - design based research is grounded in both theory and the real-world context – research is conducted in real-world contexts along with the complexities, dynamics and limitations of authentic practice. ‣ Interactive - requires interactive collaboration among researchers and practitioners 9Tuesday, 6 November 12 9
  10. 10. Characteristics ‣ Iterative and flexible - continuously developed and refined through an iterative design process from analysis to design to evaluation and redesign ‣ Integrative - need to integrate a variety of research methods and approaches from both qualitative and quantitative research paradigms ‣ Contextual - imperative that design-based researchers keep detailed records of processes and findings so others can examine them in relation to their own context and needs 10Tuesday, 6 November 12 10
  11. 11. Reeves (2000) 11Tuesday, 6 November 12 11
  12. 12. Tuesday, 6 November 12 12
  13. 13. Many names ‣ Design-based research ‣ Design science ‣ Development research ‣ Design experiments ‣ Formative research ‣ Educational design research (McKenney & Reeves, 2012). 13Tuesday, 6 November 12 13
  14. 14. Examples Project Problem Eliciting and conceptualising unfamiliar PhD Focus content from subject matter experts How to reduce anxiety in children going to Master of Nursing hospital Learning Oriented How to change the assessment culture Assessment Project reliant on high stake examinations Spaces for Knowledge How to include student input into the design Generation of next generation learning spaces How to foster innovation in blended and Teaching Fellowship Scheme flexible learning 14Tuesday, 6 November 12 14
  15. 15. Working with subject matter experts ‣ Analysis/Problem: bottleneck between ID & SME ‣ Developed: designed a process and taught the process to another ID ‣ Evaluated: researched in a military setting ‣ Reflection:Refined process (Keppell, 1997). 15Tuesday, 6 November 12 15
  16. 16. Working with subject matter experts ‣ Determine the philosophical assumptions of the SME ‣ Adapt the interview format to the SME ‣ Develop generic questions to utilise in the interview ‣ Use mapping strategies to reorganise the content ‣ Use the map as a communication prop ‣ Transform the knowledge map into a storyboard 16Tuesday, 6 November 12 16
  17. 17. Reeves (2000) 17Tuesday, 6 November 12 17
  18. 18. Reducing anxiety in children going to hospital ‣ Analysis/problem: How to reduce anxiety of children going to hospital ‣ Development: CD-ROM and booklet for parents and children ‣ Evaluation/Research: pilot of intervention with families ‣ Reflection: Refined product 18Tuesday, 6 November 12 18
  19. 19. Reducing anxiety in children going to hospital ‣ Marijke Shanley (2005) - Master of Nursing Thesis entitled: A multimedia approach to preparing children and their families for hospitalisation. ‣ Next step: relevance for childrens hospitals 19Tuesday, 6 November 12 19
  20. 20. Reeves (2000) 20Tuesday, 6 November 12 20
  21. 21. Changing a traditional assessment culture 21Tuesday, 6 November 12 21
  22. 22. Changing a traditional assessment culture ‣ Analysis/problem: How to infuse learning into assessment ‣ Development: learning-oriented assessment ‣ Evaluation/Research: pilot of intervention with several academics ‣ Reflection: Refined assessment for subsequent implementation 22Tuesday, 6 November 12 22
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  24. 24. Changing a traditional assessment culture Keppell, M., Au, E., Ma, A. & Chan, C. (2006). Peer learning and learning-oriented assessment in technology-enhanced environments. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 31(4), 453-464. Keppell, M. & Carless, D. (2006). Learning- oriented assessment: A technology-based case study. Assessment in Education, 13(2), 153-165. 24Tuesday, 6 November 12 24
  25. 25. Spaces for Knowledge Generation 25Tuesday, 6 November 12 25
  26. 26. Distributed Learning Spaces Physical Blended Virtual Formal Informal Formal Informal Mobile Personal Academic Professional Outdoor Practice 26Tuesday, 6 November 12 26
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  28. 28. Seven principles of learning space design n The SKG project has established seven principles of learning space design which support a collaborative and student-centred approach to learning: n Comfort: a space which creates a physical and mental sense of ease and well-being n Aesthetics: pleasure which includes the recognition of symmetry, harmony, simplicity and fitness for purpose n Flow: the state of mind felt by the learner when totally involved in the learning experience 28Tuesday, 6 November 12 28
  29. 29. Seven principles of learning space design •Equity: consideration of the needs of cultural and physical differences •Blending: a mixture of technological and face-to-face pedagogical resources •Affordances: the “action possibilities” the learning environment provides the users, including such things as kitchens, natural light, wifi, private spaces, writing surfaces, sofas, and so on. •Repurposing: the potential for multiple usage of a space (Souter, Riddle, Keppell, 2010) (http:// www.skgproject.com) 29Tuesday, 6 November 12 29
  30. 30. Seven principles of learning space design n Utilised for both design and evaluation of learning spaces 30Tuesday, 6 November 12 30
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  33. 33. Further Information n SKG Report: http:// documents.skgproject.com/ skg-final-report.pdf n Book Chapter: http:// www.slideshare.net/ mkeppell/distributed- spaces-for-learning n Mike’s Blog: http://mike- keppell.blogspot.com.au/ 33Tuesday, 6 November 12 33
  34. 34. Teaching Fellowship Scheme 34Tuesday, 6 November 12 34
  35. 35. Teaching Fellowship Scheme n Funded by DVC (Academic) n Development of potential leaders through Distributive leadership n Facilitatecollaborative professional relationships n Proactively redesign courses and subjects n Promote and facilitate CSU Interact as a pivotal teaching and learning hub. 35Tuesday, 6 November 12 35
  36. 36. Teaching Fellowship Scheme n 24 Fellows from across 17 different schools, four campuses and all four Faculties from 2008 - 2012 n The Fellowship scheme provided a .5 release from regular teaching duties over a 12 month period. n The Teaching Fellows had access to mentoring, writing workshops, design support, project management and a community of practice. 36Tuesday, 6 November 12 36
  37. 37. Example projects n Design and implement a virtual microscopy teaching resource n Design of twelve subjects in Information Studies n To refine and implement changes to the pedagogy, support and learning experience within the newly created cross-campus B.Ed (EC & Primary) n Development of a blending learning model that will stimulate increased technology adoption by Faculty n 37Tuesday, 6 November 12 37
  38. 38. Example projects n The virtual horticultural crop: An innovative blended learning approach in distance education n Professional development for blended learning and teaching in the 21st century digital classroom n Pattern Recognition for Learning through Simulation using Captivate in Policing n Campus Learning: Exploring the nexus between space, time, teaching and learning n Shifting to student-centred facilitation of learning: Development of blended professional development initiatives for police educators within a student problem-based learning (PBL) environment 38Tuesday, 6 November 12 38
  39. 39. Flexible learning n “Flexible learning” provides opportunities to improve the student learning experience through flexibility in time, pace, place, mode of study, teaching approach, forms of assessment and staffing. It may utilise a wide range of media, environments, learning spaces and technologies for learning and teaching. 39Tuesday, 6 November 12 39
  40. 40. Blended & Flexible Learning n “Blended and flexible learning” is a design approach that examines the relationships between flexible learning opportunities, in order to optimise student engagement and equivalence in learning outcomes regardless of mode of study (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008; Keppell, 2010). 40Tuesday, 6 November 12 40
  41. 41. Research n Analysis/problem: Need for innovation in blended and flexible learning n Development: Teaching fellows redesigned at the coalface in their own discipline n Evaluation: interviews: before, during and after the project - Transformative learning & Distributive leadership n Reflection: Refined after each year e.g. conducted interviews six months after project. Continued for five years. 41Tuesday, 6 November 12 41
  42. 42. Reeves (2000) 42Tuesday, 6 November 12 42
  43. 43. Transformative learning n An enhanced understanding of pedagogy and of their own pedagogical approach. n An increased capacity and willingness to reflect upon their own practice. n A willingness to think critically about received ideas and conventional approaches. n Readiness to innovate, to accept technological change and to build effective pedagogic connections between face-to-face and online teaching strategies. 43Tuesday, 6 November 12 43
  44. 44. Transformative learning n Renewed confidence with regard to leading and adopting change and innovation among their peers and within their own schools. n Being empowered to negotiate perceived technological and institutional barriers to change. n Preparedness to maximize the time/ space opportunity of the Fellowship to actively engage in meaningful and relevant activities for their individual context. 44Tuesday, 6 November 12 44
  45. 45. Learning leadership n A strategy where the TFS provides the time and space to implement and reflect. n A strategy supported by senior management and aligned with CSU strategic directions sees the strategy supported across many levels of the institution. n The fostering of a community of practice, through relationships with EDs, FLI staff, Fellows and others that encourages innovative research and practice in BFL 45Tuesday, 6 November 12 45
  46. 46. Learning leadership n Fellows demonstrating a willingness to collaborate, support and share practice. n The TFS providing opportunities for the development of skills and expertise that is recognised and accessed by peers. n The TFS supporting Fellows to have the confidence to take risks and experiment with something new. n Fellows demonstrating a willingness to engage in external activities and relationships, nationally and internationally. 46Tuesday, 6 November 12 46
  47. 47. Outputs n Scholarly outcomes have included: n 14 external conference presentations, 17 internal conference presentations, an ARC discovery grant application, 26 refereed publications and a number of internal research collaborations resulting from the FLI Teaching Fellowship Program. 47Tuesday, 6 November 12 47
  48. 48. Leadership roles n Dr Yann Guisard (Teaching Fellow (TF) 2010) was appointed as a Course Director, Faculty of Science, 2011. n Dr Lucy Webster (TF 2009) was appointed to the School of Medical Sciences Learning and Teaching Committee in 2009 and in 2011 won an ALTC Citation for Outstanding Contributions to Student Learning, and also in 2011 was awarded the CSU Vice-Chancellors Award for Teaching and Learning. n Kay Plummer (TF 2010) was appointed as Pilot Leader of the Bachelor of Business Studies course pilot as one of five course teams involved in the CSUDI Pilot program, 2010. In 2011, Ms Plummer was appointed Sub-Dean Learning and Teaching for the Faculty of Business. n Dr Richard Taffe (TF 2010) was appointed Course Director as part of a trial of this role in late 2009/early 2010 and has been appointed the inaugural Chair of the Directors Forum, 2011. Managing the Pathways Programs and in building connections with external education organisations and bodies. 48Tuesday, 6 November 12 48
  49. 49. Leadership roles n Dr John Rafferty (TF 2011) has been an Associate Head of School since the start of 2011, and is currently the co-chair of the Murray School of Educations Learning and Teaching Committee. Dr Rafferty was awarded the Vice-Chancellors Award for Excellence in Sustainability in 2011 and has been awarded substantial funding for several sustainability and environmental projects. n Dr Jenni Munday (TF 2008) has been an Associate Head of School since the start of 2011, was acting Sub-Dean Learning and Teaching during semester 1, 2011 and acting Head of School for 3 months in late 2011. n Dr Jennifer Sappey (TF 2008) was awarded the Vice Chancellor and Faculty of Arts Awards for Teaching Excellence in 2009 and also received an ALTC Citation for Outstanding contribution to student learning 2010. 49Tuesday, 6 November 12 49
  50. 50. Keppell, M. J., O’Dwyer, C., Lyon, B., & Childs, M. (2010). Transforming distance education curricula through distributive leadership. ALT-J, 18:3, 165 - 178. Childs, M., Brown, M., Keppell, M., Nicholas, Z., Hunter, C. & Hard, N. (2012). Learning leadership in Higher Education: the big and small actions of many people. DeHub, Australia (draft document). 50Tuesday, 6 November 12 50
  51. 51. Horizon trends ‣ People expect to be able to work, learn, and study whenever and wherever they want. ‣ The abundance of resources and relationships made easily accessible via the Internet is increasingly challenging us to revisit our roles as educators. ‣ Increasingly, students want to use their own technology for learning. ‣ Teaching paradigms across all sectors are shifting to include online learning, hybrid learning and collaborative models. 51Tuesday, 6 November 12 51
  52. 52. Horizon trends ‣ Massively Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are proliferating. ‣ Many institutions are looking to open — often free — online universities to supplement the current courses at brick-and-mortar institutions. ‣ Higher education institutions have always been seen as critical paths to educational credentialing, but challenges from competing sources are redefining what these paths can look like. 52Tuesday, 6 November 12 52
  53. 53. Horizon Challenges ‣ Personalized learning ‣ Digital media literacy is continuing its rise in importance as a key skill in every discipline and profession. ‣ Critical for educators to build and participate in networks where they can share pedagogical research and best practices. ‣ Appropriate metrics of evaluation lag behind the emergence of new scholarly forms of authoring, publishing, and researching. 53Tuesday, 6 November 12 53
  54. 54. ADFI ‣ Innovation and research ‣ Literacies for the future ‣ Mobility ‣ Digital communities ‣ Learning spaces ‣ Personal Learning Environments 54Tuesday, 6 November 12 54
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  56. 56. Questions? 56Tuesday, 6 November 12 56