Crystal Structure: Cubic
Density @ 293 K: 2.702 g/cm3
oxidation states: +3
state (by 20°C): solid
Ionization Energy: 5.986 eV
Atomic Number: 13
Estimated Crustal Abundance: 8.23×104 milligrams per kilogram
Atomic Mass: 26.981539 amu
Melting Point: 660.37 °C (933.52 K, 1220.666 °F)
Boiling Point: 2467.0 °C (2740.15 K, 4472.6 °F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 13
Number of Neutrons: 14
Base on ﬁg 1a
the valence electron of the aluminium is +3
Number of energy level of the element is 3
Electron Shell Conﬁguration:
Fairly active metal
Reactive with many hot acid and alkalis
It also react quickly with hot water
When it react with the oxygen, it form aluminum oxide
Very good conductor of electricity and heat
formation of various salt which are soluble by reacting with certain mineral acid.
In the molt state, it reacts dynamically when brought with the water
It forms a thin layer oxide on its surface, which defend it from being affected by open air, water, certain chemical
ALuminum in our society
Aluminum is used for many things in today society
Engines of vehicle
The process of getting aluminum metal by the electrolysis of alumina dissolved in
cryolite was discovered in 1886 by Hall in the U.S. and at about the same time by
Heroult in France. Cryolite, a natural ore found in Greenland, is no longer widely
used in commercial production, but has been restore by an artiﬁcial mixture of
sodium, aluminum, and calcium ﬂuorides.
Aluminum can now be produced from clay, but the process is not economically
feasible at present. Aluminum is the most abundant metal to be found in the earth's
crust (8.1%), but is never found free in nature. In addition to the minerals declared
above, it is also found in granite and in many other common minerals.
Ordinarily, aluminum is trivalent. At elevated temperatures, however,
a few gaseous monovalent and bivalent compounds have been
prepared (AlCl, Al2O, AlO).
In aluminum the conﬁguration of the three outer electrons is such
that in a few compounds (e.g., crystalline aluminum ﬂuoride [AlF3]
and aluminum chloride [AlCl3]) the bare ion, Al3+, formed by loss of
these electrons, is known to occur.
The energy required to form the Al3+ ion, however, is very high;
and, in the majority of cases, it is energetically more favorable for the
aluminum atom to form covalent compounds by way of sp2
hybridization, as boron does.
The Al3+ ion can be stabilized by hydration, and the octahedral ion
[Al(H2O)6]3+ occurs both in aqueous solution and in several salts.
(L. alumen, alum) The ancient Greeks and Romans used alum as an astringent and as a mordant
in dyeing. In 1761 de Morveau proposed the name alumine for the base in alum, and Lavoisier, in
1787, thought this to be the oxide of a still undiscovered metal.
Wohler is generally credited with having isolated the metal in 1827, although an impure form was
prepared by Oersted two years earlier.
In 1807, Davy proposed the name alumium for the metal, undiscovered at that time, and later
agreed to change it to aluminum. Shortly thereafter, the name aluminium was adopted to
conform with the quot;iumquot; ending of most elements, and this spelling is now in use elsewhere in the
Aluminium was also the accepted spelling in the U.S. until 1925, at which time the American
Chemical Society ofﬁcially decided to use the name aluminum thereafter in their publications.
Gagnon, Steve (Unknown ). Aluminum. Retrieved April 29, 2009, from
science education Web site: http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/
Bellis, Mary (2009). Charles Martin Hall (1863-1914) - Aluminum.
Retrieved April 30, 2009, from Aluminum Web site: http://
Davyson, Sam (Unknown ). Aluminum. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from
History Web site: http://sam.davyson.com/as/physics/aluminium/