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Element Profile Real .Pdf


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Element Profile Real .Pdf

  1. 1. Aluminum By Mohamed Kenneh
  2. 2. Basic Information Crystal Structure: Cubic Density @ 293 K: 2.702 g/cm3 Color: Silver oxidation states: +3 Symbol: Al state (by 20°C): solid Ionization Energy: 5.986 eV Atomic Number: 13 Estimated Crustal Abundance: 8.23×104 milligrams per kilogram Atomic Mass: 26.981539 amu Melting Point: 660.37 °C (933.52 K, 1220.666 °F) Boiling Point: 2467.0 °C (2740.15 K, 4472.6 °F) Number of Protons/Electrons: 13 Number of Neutrons: 14
  3. 3. Electron configuration Base on fig 1a Fig 1a the valence electron of the aluminium is +3 Number of energy level of the element is 3 Electron Shell Configuration: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^1
  4. 4. Physical properties Fairly active metal Reactive with many hot acid and alkalis It also react quickly with hot water When it react with the oxygen, it form aluminum oxide Very good conductor of electricity and heat
  5. 5. Chemical properties formation of various salt which are soluble by reacting with certain mineral acid. In the molt state, it reacts dynamically when brought with the water It forms a thin layer oxide on its surface, which defend it from being affected by open air, water, certain chemical and solution.
  6. 6. ALuminum in our society Aluminum is used for many things in today society There are: Electricity cables Foil Cars Airplanes soda cans Engines of vehicle
  7. 7. Sources The process of getting aluminum metal by the electrolysis of alumina dissolved in cryolite was discovered in 1886 by Hall in the U.S. and at about the same time by Heroult in France. Cryolite, a natural ore found in Greenland, is no longer widely used in commercial production, but has been restore by an artificial mixture of sodium, aluminum, and calcium fluorides. Aluminum can now be produced from clay, but the process is not economically feasible at present. Aluminum is the most abundant metal to be found in the earth's crust (8.1%), but is never found free in nature. In addition to the minerals declared above, it is also found in granite and in many other common minerals.
  8. 8. Compounds Ordinarily, aluminum is trivalent. At elevated temperatures, however, a few gaseous monovalent and bivalent compounds have been prepared (AlCl, Al2O, AlO). In aluminum the configuration of the three outer electrons is such that in a few compounds (e.g., crystalline aluminum fluoride [AlF3] and aluminum chloride [AlCl3]) the bare ion, Al3+, formed by loss of these electrons, is known to occur. The energy required to form the Al3+ ion, however, is very high; and, in the majority of cases, it is energetically more favorable for the aluminum atom to form covalent compounds by way of sp2 hybridization, as boron does. The Al3+ ion can be stabilized by hydration, and the octahedral ion [Al(H2O)6]3+ occurs both in aqueous solution and in several salts.
  9. 9. History (L. alumen, alum) The ancient Greeks and Romans used alum as an astringent and as a mordant in dyeing. In 1761 de Morveau proposed the name alumine for the base in alum, and Lavoisier, in 1787, thought this to be the oxide of a still undiscovered metal. Wohler is generally credited with having isolated the metal in 1827, although an impure form was prepared by Oersted two years earlier. In 1807, Davy proposed the name alumium for the metal, undiscovered at that time, and later agreed to change it to aluminum. Shortly thereafter, the name aluminium was adopted to conform with the quot;iumquot; ending of most elements, and this spelling is now in use elsewhere in the world. Aluminium was also the accepted spelling in the U.S. until 1925, at which time the American Chemical Society officially decided to use the name aluminum thereafter in their publications.
  10. 10. APA Gagnon, Steve (Unknown ). Aluminum. Retrieved April 29, 2009, from science education Web site: ele013.html Bellis, Mary (2009). Charles Martin Hall (1863-1914) - Aluminum. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from Aluminum Web site: http:// Davyson, Sam (Unknown ). Aluminum. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from History Web site: siteus/history.html
  11. 11. Acknowledgement Mr. Sherif Mr. Barry Morgan Mr. Youm