Ss Chapter 3


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Ss Chapter 3

  1. 1. Chapter 3 GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  2. 2. The Structure of Atoms <ul><li>Atomic Theory – states that all matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Matter is defined as anything that has mass and takes up space. </li></ul>Pg. 54
  3. 3. The Structure of Atoms <ul><li>Atoms are made up of three subatomic particles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons – positive charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons – no charge; neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons – negative charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons are made up of particles called quarks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Protons and Neutrons are located in the nucleus of an atom </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are located outside the nucleus in random patterns, but clustered in electron shells. </li></ul>Pg. 54
  4. 4. The Structure of Atoms <ul><li>Electron Shells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first electron shell has no more than two electrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Second shell can have as many as eight electrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other shells have varying numbers of electrons depending on the number of electrons in the atom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The last electron shell usually will hold no more than eight electrons. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 54
  5. 5. Properties of Elements In the Periodic Table <ul><li>The number of protons in an atom gives the atom its identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms that have the same number of protons are called elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements are arranged according to their atomic number on the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The atomic number corresponds to the number of protons or electrons in the atom. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 56
  6. 6. Properties of Elements in the Periodic Table <ul><li>The atomic mass is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons found in the atom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons do not contribute to the mass of the atom because they are so small. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protons + Neutrons = Atomic Mass </li></ul>Pg. 56
  7. 7. Properties of Elements in the Periodic Table <ul><li>Atoms of the same element do not always have the same number of neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms that have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic mass given on the periodic table is the average of all the isotopes and is not a whole number. </li></ul><ul><li>To find the number of neutrons for an element, subtract the number of protons (atomic number) from the atomic mass. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass – Atomic Number = Number of Neutrons </li></ul></ul>Pg. 56
  8. 8. Properties of Elements in the Periodic Table <ul><li>The periodic table is made up of elements placed in organized rows and columns according to properties and size. </li></ul><ul><li>Rows are called period and are arranged according to the atomic numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Columns are called families and have similar properties and always have the same number of electrons in their outer shell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can remember that families of people have similar characteristics or properties and a family tree goes down. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 56
  9. 9. Properties of Elements in the Periodic Table <ul><li>Elements can all be classified as metals, nonmetals, metalloids, or noble gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Metals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make up the majority of the table and are located to the left. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is the only exception. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are solids at room temperature, are hard, have luster (shiny), and conduct heat and electricity. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 57
  10. 10. Properties of Elements in the Period Table <ul><li>Nonmetals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right side of the periodic table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually gases or dull, brittle solids at room temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metalloids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements diagonally between the metals and nonmetals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have properties of both metals and nonmetals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in semiconductors and computer chips. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 57
  11. 11. Properties of Elements in the Periodic Table <ul><li>Noble Gases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located in one family; Family VIIIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Far right column of the periodic table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmetal gases that do not react with any other elements. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 57
  12. 12. Reactivity of Elements in the Periodic Table <ul><li>An element is most stable when its last electron shell is full. </li></ul><ul><li>All elements have outer shells that can hold 8 electrons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception: Hydrogen and Helium </li></ul></ul>Pg. 61
  13. 13. Family VIIIA <ul><li>Noble gases have 8 electrons in their outer shells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception: Helium, but is complete with only 2 electrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very stable elements </li></ul><ul><li>Will not react with other elements </li></ul>Pg. 61
  14. 14. Family IA <ul><li>Alkali Metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception is Hydrogen (non metal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Have only one electron in the outer shell </li></ul><ul><li>Give up its one electron forming ions </li></ul>Pg. 61
  15. 15. Family IIA <ul><li>Alkaline Earth Metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have 2 electrons out of 8 possible in their outer shell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very reactive, but less reactive than the Alkali Metals </li></ul>Pg. 61
  16. 16. Family B <ul><li>Transition Metals found in the middle of the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactivity of these metals increases as you go down the periodic table and from right to left. </li></ul>Pg. 62
  17. 17. Family VIIA <ul><li>Halogens </li></ul><ul><li>Most reactive nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Have 7 out of 8 possible electrons in their outer shell </li></ul><ul><li>Combine with metals to form a salt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Na + Cl -> NaCl </li></ul></ul>Pg. 62
  18. 18. Family VIA <ul><li>No common name </li></ul><ul><li>Have 6 of 8 possible electrons in their outer shell </li></ul><ul><li>Not as reactive as the halogens </li></ul>Pg. 62
  19. 19. Family IIIA through VA <ul><li>No common name </li></ul><ul><li>Family IVA is half full making it more stable than IIIA or VA on either side of it. </li></ul>Pg. 62
  20. 20. Bonding of Atoms <ul><li>Atoms of different elements combine chemically to form compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Done by sharing or transferring electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrons in the outer shell of an atom are called valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic bonds result in the transfer of electrons from atom to atom. </li></ul>Pg. 64
  21. 21. Bonding of Atoms <ul><li>Ionic bonds are usually present in compounds which have metal atoms bonded with nonmetal atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bonds are when two or more atoms share electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Usually present with two or more nonmetals </li></ul>Pg. 64-65
  22. 22. Radioactivity <ul><li>Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes </li></ul><ul><li>When there are too many neutrons in the nucleus the nucleus becomes unstable. </li></ul><ul><li>An unstable isotope will be radioactive and is called a radioactive isotope </li></ul>Pg. 69
  23. 23. Radioactivity <ul><li>Radioactive atoms give off three particles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha Particles – helium nucleus with 2p and 2n </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When an alpha particle is given off the atomic number of the parent nucleus is reduced by two </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If ingested will do more damage to internal tissues than other forms of radiation. </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 69
  24. 24. Radioactivity <ul><ul><li>Beta Particles – electrons emitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penetrate more than alpha particles but can be stopped by lead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gamma Particles – high energy x-rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can only be stopped by thick lead or concrete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>All elements with atomic numbers greater than 83 are radioactive </li></ul>Pg. 70
  25. 25. Radioactivity <ul><li>A radioactive atom that emits an alpha, beta, or gamma particles is going through a process called radioactive decay </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive decay causes an atom of one element to become a different element by reducing its atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>The half-life of a radioactive atom is the time it takes for ½ of the particles in the nucleus to decay </li></ul>Pg. 70
  26. 26. Fission <ul><li>Fission occurs when the nucleus of an atom that is so unstable that it splits into two smaller atoms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases a large amount of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in nuclear reactors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactors use control rods to absorb excess energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear bombs have no control rods and release all of the energy in one blast </li></ul></ul>Pg. 71
  27. 27. Fusion <ul><li>Fusion is when two small atoms are joined together to form a larger atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces energy also </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires high temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the sun when two hydrogen atoms fuse to form a helium atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists are still working to recreate this but can’t generate the high temp </li></ul></ul>Pg. 72
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