Ss Chapter 19.3


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Ss Chapter 19.3

  1. 1. Chapter 19.3 Earth Science The Lithosphere GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  2. 2. The Lithosphere <ul><li>Most dynamic of the four spheres and recycles elements in a variety of ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Some methods are considered fast in a geological sense, while others may occur over billions of years. </li></ul><ul><li>The rock cycle explains how rocks are built and recycled. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass wasting </li></ul></ul>Pg. 329
  3. 3. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcano – a mountain formed from lava and rocks made from materials that have emerged from inside the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Lava – magma that has reached the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Magma – liquid rock and dissolved gases still inside the earth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved gases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 329
  4. 4. Volcanoes <ul><li>Magma reaches earth’s surface through a vent . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vents begin deep in the earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once out of the vent lava hardens to build a mountainous structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the mountain/volcano is built lava still releases from the crater. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crater is a hole in the top of the volcano. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 329
  5. 5. Volcanoes <ul><li>Magma is under pressure inside the earth. When this pressure is released the sudden expansion of gases causes an eruption. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Mount St. Helens 1980 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lava can also slowly flow from a volcano. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Kilauea in Hawaii </li></ul></ul>Pg. 329
  6. 6. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcanoes affect the other sphere b y causing physical damage, depositing elements, and creating rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>During eruptions, sulfur and carbon gases, dirt, and ash are thrown into the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>This is sent high into the atmosphere. </li></ul>Pg. 330
  7. 7. Volcanoes <ul><li>This debris can become suspended in the atmosphere for a period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>This debris can block sunlight, decreasing the temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>A decrease in temperature can affect wind and precipitation. </li></ul><ul><li>The gases form acids with the water in the atmosphere to form acid rain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur reacts with water to form Sulfuric Acid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of dinosaur extinction similar to this. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 330
  8. 8. External Processes <ul><li>External processes close to the surface include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weathering-decomposition of rock by mechanical, biological, or chemical means. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass wasting-transport of rock down slope under the effect of gravity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion-movement of soil or rock material by water, wind, or ice. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 330
  9. 9. Weathering <ul><li>Rock weathers as a response to changes in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Weathering occurs by three processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical Weathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Weathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Weathering </li></ul></ul>Pg. 330
  10. 10. Mechanical Weathering <ul><li>Process where rocks are physically broken into smaller pieces by wind, water, ice or heat. </li></ul>Pg. 330
  11. 11. Chemical Weathering <ul><li>Process where minerals within the rocks are broken down by removing or altering elements that make up the minerals. </li></ul>Pg. 330
  12. 12. Biological Weathering <ul><li>Caused by living organisms using both mechanical or chemical means. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical – Burrowing plants or animals break up the soil and rock mechanically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical – Lichens secreting enzymes removing nutrients from the rock and soil while living on them. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 330
  13. 13. Mass Wasting <ul><li>Transports rock down slope gradually or rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Major types of mass wasting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slumping – mass of rock moves as a single unit down slope along a curved surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rockslides – large sections of rock break away down slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not follow a curve like slumping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mudflows – sediment becomes saturated with water and flows down slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occur rapidly after large rainfalls. </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 330
  14. 14. Erosion <ul><li>The breakdown and transport of soil or rock by water, ice, or wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Streams and rivers break down rocks, but also transport them. </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers alter their course cutting through rock and soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Also occurs along shorelines where waves break down and transport rocks. </li></ul>Pg. 331
  15. 15. Erosion <ul><li>Ice erodes and transports rock by glacial movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks trapped in the ice erode by hitting each other or the walls of valleys. </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial ice carves out valleys and erodes mountain tops. </li></ul>Pg. 331
  16. 16. Erosion <ul><li>Wind erosion is most apparent in desert environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Rock fragments are carried by winds and pushed until they meet a hill. </li></ul><ul><li>The fragments act like a sand blaster eroding the rock of the hill over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind also transports large amounts of rock and soil over large distances. </li></ul>Pg. 331
  17. 17. Rock Types <ul><li>Three Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Igneous – formed from magma deep inside the earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary – formed from deposited and compressed sediment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metamorphic – changed by heat and pressure </li></ul></ul>Pg. 331
  18. 18. Igneous Rocks <ul><li>Magma cools and solidifies. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling below the earth’s surface creates large crystals and are called intrusive igneous rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling outside the earth’s surface creates small crystals and are called extrusive igneous rocks. </li></ul>Pg. 331
  19. 19. Sedimentary Rocks <ul><li>Can be either land derived or precipitated from ocean water. </li></ul><ul><li>Land derived are usually transported, then deposited, compacted and cemented in another location. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandstone, mudstone, and conglomerates. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ocean precipitates fall to the ocean floor as sediment and compacted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limestone, halite (salt), and gypsum. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 332
  20. 20. Metamorphic Rock <ul><li>Occurs when rocks change within the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be caused by heat and pressure or by chemical means. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon into diamond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limestone into marble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandstone into quartzite </li></ul></ul>Pg. 332
  21. 21. Rock Cycle <ul><li>Begins with igneous rocks, then undergoes weathering and erosion to create sediment. </li></ul><ul><li>Sediment becomes deposited and compacted forming sedimentary rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary rocks are exposed to heat and pressure and form metamorphic rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphic rocks can melt inside the earth to erupt and from igneous rocks again. </li></ul>Pg. 332