Ss Chapter 18.1


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Ss Chapter 18.1

  1. 1. Chapter 18 Ecosystems & Populations GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  2. 2. Major Ecological Systems <ul><li>An ecological system is also called an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems contain biotic and abiotic factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Biotic factors are the living organisms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Plant and Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abiotic factors are nonliving, physical components. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>`Example: soil and nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six major terrestrial and three major aquatic ecosystems. </li></ul>Pg. 311
  3. 3. Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>Large land areas characterized by a dominant form of plant life and climate type that make up large ecosystems are called biomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries between biomes are not apparent and gradually fade into each other. </li></ul>Pg. 311
  4. 4. Terrestrial Ecosystems <ul><li>There are six major terrestrial biomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coniferous Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciduous Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grassland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain Forest </li></ul></ul>Pg. 311
  5. 5. Tundra Biome <ul><li>Located near the north and south poles. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall is light and summer temperature averages around 1 0 C. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsoil is permanently frozen. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant life consists of mosses, lichens, and reindeer moss. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are reindeer caribou, polar bears, arctic wolves, foxes, hares, lemmings, birds and insects. </li></ul>Pg. 311
  6. 6. Coniferous Forest <ul><li>Found above 60 0 N latitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall is medium and the summer temperature averages 12 0 C. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsoil thaws for a few weeks in the summer. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are mostly coniferous. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Spruce, Fir, and Pine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animals are moose, black bear, wolves, lynx, wolverines, martens, porcupines, and birds. </li></ul>Pg.312
  7. 7. Deciduous Forest <ul><li>Found in the middle latitudes between 20 0 and 60 0 . </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall is medium and the average summer temperature is around 24 0 C. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are broad leaved with foliage that changes color in autumn. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals include mostly squirrels, deer, foxes and bears. </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana falls in this biome. </li></ul>Pg.312
  8. 8. Grassland Biome <ul><li>Located in mid-continental areas of middle latitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall is low and average summer temperature is 20 0 C. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are variegated grasses. </li></ul><ul><li>Large herbivores such as bison, antelope, zebras, as well as smaller burrowing rodents. </li></ul>Pg. 312
  9. 9. Tropical Rain Forest Biome <ul><li>Located near the equator and near mountain ranges. </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant rainfall with high humidity. Average summer temperature is 25 0 C. </li></ul><ul><li>Large variety of plants and animals. </li></ul>Pg. 312
  10. 10. Desert Biome <ul><li>Located on either side of the equator between 0 0 and 20 0 . </li></ul><ul><li>Little rain with extreme temperature fluctuations. Average summer temperature is 30 0 C. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants include sage brush, mesquite, and cacti. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals include the kangaroo rat, snakes, lizards, spiders, and insects. </li></ul>Pg.312
  11. 11. Aquatic Ecosystems <ul><li>Precipitation and temperature are NOT the major determinant of plant and animal life. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of light and oxygen are important for photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity (salt content) is the most important determinant. </li></ul>Pg.312
  12. 12. Freshwater Biomes <ul><li>No salinity. </li></ul><ul><li>Important to the Earth’s water cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in many areas and support a wide variety of plant and animal life. </li></ul>Pg. 312
  13. 13. Estuary Biome <ul><li>Mixed salinity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is where fresh water and salt water meet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contain salt marshes and swampy areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the most biologically diverse locations on earth. </li></ul>Pg. 313
  14. 14. Marine Biome <ul><li>High salinity. </li></ul><ul><li>Largest ecosystems on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Three different zones depending on depth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intertidal Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelagic Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benthic Zone </li></ul></ul>Pg.313
  15. 15. Intertidal Zone <ul><li>An area of shore between low and high tides. </li></ul><ul><li>Most biologically active area of the marine ecosystem. </li></ul>Pg.313
  16. 16. Pelagic Zone <ul><li>Largest ocean area. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into two zones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shallow allows light for photosynthesis to occur in plants and organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Most marine mammals and fish live in this zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Deep zone does not allow light, but comprises most of the earth’s oceans. </li></ul>Pg. 313
  17. 17. Benthic Zone <ul><li>Located on the ocean floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Burrowing animals like clams and worms are abundant. </li></ul><ul><li>In shallow benthic areas, coral reefs are commonly found. </li></ul>Pg. 313