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Ss Chapter 13


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Ss Chapter 13

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Human Life and Health Body Systems GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  2. 2. Control Systems <ul><li>Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a fairly constant internal environment despite changing conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>To accomplish homeostasis, our cells must be continually bathed in fluid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This fluid is called extracellular fluid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most fluid is interstitial , meaning it lies within the spaces between the cells. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 226
  3. 3. Control Systems <ul><li>Sensory receptors are cells that detect changes like light, temperature, or hormone levels in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>These sensory receptors send information to the nervous system; the nervous system then sends a signal to the appropriate organ system for adjustment. </li></ul>Pg. 226
  4. 4. Control Systems <ul><li>Two types of feedback to maintain homeostasis in the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Feedback </li></ul></ul>Pg. 227
  5. 5. Negative Feedback <ul><li>The last step in the process slows or stops the first step. </li></ul>Pg. 227
  6. 6. Positive Feedback <ul><li>The last step accelerates the first step of a process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can lead to abnormal conditions and cause disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for a few body functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childbirth </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 227
  7. 7. Nervous System <ul><li>The control and communication network of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves are a bundle of cells called neurons </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 227
  8. 8. Nervous System <ul><li>Two types of Neurons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get information from the environment through the senses (sight, sound, taste, etc.) and relay the information to the brain. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carry information from the brain to the muscles and glands and cause an action to occur. </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 227
  9. 9. Nervous System <ul><li>Two Main Parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul></ul>Pg. 227
  10. 10. Central Nervous System (CNS) <ul><li>Contains the brain and spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain contains several parts; each having its own specific task. It is enclosed in the skull. </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord runs up and down the back and is enclosed by the vertebrae of the back for protection. </li></ul>Pg. 227
  11. 11. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Consists of all other parts of the nervous system outside of the CNS. </li></ul><ul><li>Carries nerve impulses from the brain to the body and back. </li></ul><ul><li>Two systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the involuntary systems such as heart beating and breathing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the voluntary systems such a muscle movement. </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 227
  12. 12. Senses <ul><li>The ability for us to detect what is happening in our environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul></ul>Pg. 227
  13. 13. Endocrine System <ul><li>Regulates the effects of hormones on body functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Works hand in hand with the nervous system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve impulses cause the endocrine system to release or stop productions of hormones. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hormones are produced and stored by organs called glands. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of glands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exocrine Glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine Glands </li></ul></ul>Pg. 228
  14. 14. Exocrine Glands <ul><li>Secrete substances through a duct into a body cavity or onto the skin’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat glands and mammary glands. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 228
  15. 15. Endocrine Glands <ul><li>Secrete hormones in small amounts directly into the bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones travel through the body until they reach their target cells in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones do not affect cells other than their specific target cells. </li></ul>Pg. 228
  16. 16. Hormones In The Body <ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries & Testes </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenaline </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium in blood </li></ul><ul><li>Body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul>Pg. 228
  17. 17. Excretory System <ul><li>Removes waste products from the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs and skin release some waster product through respiration and sweating, but most is released through the urinary tract. </li></ul>Pg. 228
  18. 18. Urinary Tract <ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ureters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul></ul>Pg. 228
  19. 19. Urinary Tract <ul><li>Kidneys are a pair of organs that filter the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys filter blood and produce urine. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urea is a byproduct of protein production that is contained in urine. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urine is mostly water, but also contains urea, salts and other waste products. </li></ul>Pg. 228
  20. 20. Urinary Tract <ul><li>Urine travels through the ureters from the kidneys to the bladder for storage. </li></ul><ul><li>The bladder is a storage organ. </li></ul><ul><li>When urine is ready to be expelled from the body it travels from the bladder through the urethra and out of the body. </li></ul>Pg. 228