Ss Chapter 10


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Ss Chapter 10

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Cell Division & Genetics GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  2. 2. Cellular Reproduction <ul><li>Multicellular organisms are composed of two kinds of cells: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Within these cells matched pairs of chromosomes are called homologous chromosomes or homologues. </li></ul><ul><li>Homologues are similar in size and carry the same kinds of genes, but are not identical. </li></ul>Pg. 182
  3. 3. Somatic Cells <ul><li>Contain two sets of chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Two sets of chromosomes is called: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diploid (2n) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make up almost all cells in an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the two sets of chromosomes, one set comes from the mother and one set from the father. </li></ul>Pg.182
  4. 4. Mitosis and the Cell Cycle <ul><li>Mitosis is the reproduction of somatic cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Often called cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Results in two diploid (2n) cells. </li></ul>Pg.182
  5. 5. Mitosis <ul><li>Some unicellular organisms reproduce asexually by mitosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction by mitosis produces a clone of the parent. </li></ul><ul><li>Clones are genetically identical. </li></ul>Pg.182
  6. 6. Cell Cycle <ul><li>The cell cycle is the sequence of stages through which a cell passes between one cell division and the next. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains six cycles or phases. </li></ul>Pg.183
  7. 7. Six Phases of the Cell Cycle <ul><li>Interphase </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis </li></ul>Pg. 183
  8. 8. Interphase <ul><li>Most of the cell’s lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA at this phase is long strands and is called chromatin. </li></ul><ul><li>During the later stage, chromatin is duplicated in preparation for cell division. </li></ul>Pg.183
  9. 9. Prophase <ul><li>Chromatin condenses and coils to from rod shaped chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Each arm of the chromosome is called a chromotid and are attached at the centromere. </li></ul>Pg183.
  10. 10. Metaphase <ul><li>The nuclear envelope breaks apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Spindles are completely formed. </li></ul>Pg183.
  11. 11. Anaphase <ul><li>Chromotids come apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromotids are pulled by the spindle to each end of the cell. </li></ul>Pg.183
  12. 12. Telophase <ul><li>Last stage of mitosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes uncoil forming chromatin again. </li></ul><ul><li>The nuclear envelope reforms. </li></ul>Pg.183
  13. 13. Cytokinesis <ul><li>The division of the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>A cell plate forms within the cell dividing it into the two daughter cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell plate becomes part of the new cell membranes. </li></ul>Pg.183
  14. 14. Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Reproductive cells use Meiosis for cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell will be haploid (n) or have only half the original chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex cells created by meiosis are called gametes. </li></ul>Pg.184
  15. 15. Meiosis <ul><li>Prior to meiosis gamete cells go through Interphase similar to somatic cells in mitosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis occurs in two divisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis II </li></ul></ul>Pg.184
  16. 16. Meiosis I <ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatin condenses into chromosomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homologues pair off. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same as in mitosis. </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg.184
  17. 17. Meiosis I <ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindles form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope disappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same as in mitosis </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 184
  18. 18. Meiosis I <ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromotids are pulled apart and pulled towards the spindles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same as in mitosis </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 184
  19. 19. Meiosis I <ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromotids uncoil back into chromatin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same as mitosis </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg.185
  20. 20. Meiosis I  Meiosis II <ul><li>After meiosis I, unlike mitosis, cytokinesis does not occur, but a stage called interkinesis. </li></ul><ul><li>During interkinesis the chromatin is not duplicated like during interphase. </li></ul>Pg.185
  21. 21. Meiosis II <ul><li>Follows all of the stages of Meiosis I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After completing Meiosis II, the gamete goes into Interphase to begin the process again. </li></ul>Pg.186
  22. 22. Genetic Expression <ul><li>DNA makes up the genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes carry the traits that are inherited. </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gene make up for a particular trait. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phenotype: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The visible expression of a genetic trait. </li></ul></ul>Pg.187
  23. 23. Genetic Expression <ul><li>If an individual inherits two of the same alleles for a particular trait they are homozygous. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be either dominant or recessive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If an individual inherits one dominant allele and one recessive allele, the individual is heterozygous. </li></ul>Pg.188