Ss Chapter 1


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Ss Chapter 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Scientific Method and Scientific Communication GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  2. 2. Introduction To The Scientific Method <ul><li>Science is the observation, identification, description, and explanation of phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>The Scientific Method is the process used to assist us in our attempt to understand our surroundings. </li></ul>Pg.17
  3. 3. Steps In The Scientific Method <ul><li>Make an observation </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Form the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Set up an experiment to test the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Collect the data </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Make a prediction </li></ul>Pg 17.
  4. 4. Example of the Scientific Method <ul><li>Observe birds in flight. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make an observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do birds fly? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The wing designs of birds catch the air differently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form the hypothesis </li></ul></ul>Pg. 17
  5. 5. Example of the Scientific Method <ul><li>Make and fly different designs of paper airplanes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up an experiment to test the hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take notes on flight patterns of paper airplanes and create a data table on how each airplane flew. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect the data </li></ul></ul>Pg. 17
  6. 6. Example of the Scientific Method <ul><li>The size and shape of the wing gives lift to the bird. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw a conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wing designs are dependent on the size of the bird. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a prediction </li></ul></ul>Pg. 17
  7. 7. Making Observations and Defining the Problem <ul><li>Scientist believe all natural phenomena in the universe have logical, verifiable explanations. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Phenomena is something occurring in nature that we experience through our senses. </li></ul>Pg. 18
  8. 8. Making Observations and Defining the Problem <ul><li>Observations are made by using the five senses: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sight – Watching a bird build a nest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Touch – Touching the nest’s material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sound – Hearing the bird’s call </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 18
  9. 9. Making Observations and Defining the Problem <ul><li>Making observations may lead to identifying problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observing that pigeons are making nests on the tops of city buildings. You might also observe the problem that pigeon droppings are damaging shingles and defacing city property. </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 18
  10. 10. Asking Questions <ul><li>Asking appropriate questions is the second step in solving a problem </li></ul><ul><li>By asking questions, we can search for logical explanations for what we observe and find ways to solve problems. </li></ul>Pg. 18
  11. 11. Forming The Hypothesis <ul><li>A hypothesis is a statement that gives the best possible response to the question </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the effect of sunlight on green plants? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: Green plants need sunlight to grow. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 18
  12. 12. Forming The Hypothesis <ul><li>The hypothesis can be formed using inductive reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning is the ability of a scientist to draw from knowledge and experience to make a general explanation. </li></ul>Pg. 18
  13. 13. Setting Up the Experiment <ul><li>Should give accurate and measurable results. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be designed to collect information about the hypothesis I order to solve the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather meaningful data. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine only one condition at a time. </li></ul>Pg. 18
  14. 14. Setting Up the Experiment <ul><li>Should have two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the experiment designed without variable to support the hypothesis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part designed to test variable components of the hypothesis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate changes which might invalidate the hypothesis. </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 18
  15. 15. Collecting Data <ul><li>Gathered from the observations and measurement taken during a scientific experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Should include intervals, temperatures, and metric units of mass, length and volume. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grams, Meters, Liters, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>Pg. 19
  16. 16. Collecting Data <ul><li>Two Types of Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows specific characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gives exact amounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Both types should be collected and displayed in a data table. </li></ul>Pg. 19
  17. 17. Presenting Data <ul><li>Table – good way to organize data because it presents information in an orderly fashion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually in rows and columns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Line Graph – best used to show how one variable changes with respect to another. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data recorded in a table can often be graphed to show the relationship between the data in a way that is easier to analyze. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 21-22
  18. 18. Presenting Data <ul><li>Multiple Line Graphs – used to compare multiple values </li></ul><ul><li>Bar Graphs – used to show easy-to-read, unconnected bars which represent a quantity of information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantities represented by the bars can then be compared and contrasted. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 22-23
  19. 19. Presenting Data <ul><li>Circle Graph – used to show parts of a whole. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often show percentages of a total. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called pie graphs or pie charts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Models – used to show a picture </li></ul><ul><li>Diagrams – used to show schematic drawings, illustrating the parts of the whole of a real event. </li></ul>Pg. 24-25
  20. 20. Drawing Conclusions <ul><li>Conclusion – judgment or inference based on observation and experimentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawn from the results of the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Results are the end products of an experiment. </li></ul>Pg. 25
  21. 21. Making a Prediction <ul><li>Prediction – a forecast of the possible results of future events. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge gained from observation and experimentation can help to make predictions for unrelated events. </li></ul>Pg. 26
  22. 22. Analysis of Error In Scientific Data <ul><li>Any errors that might have been made during an experiment will result in a distortion of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A student consistently reads the volume in a graduated cylinder at a slight angle instead of straight on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes a spillage or other accident can result in an invalid data point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pouring a liquid from one container to another and then recording the volume will usually result in some error since not all of the liquid will be transferred to the second container. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Errors in data are commonly made simply by recording the data incorrectly. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 26
  23. 23. Assignment <ul><li>Chapter 1 Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete all 20 questions. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 34-38