PHYSICS PROJECT ON NUCLEAR POWER Prepared by - Mayank Agarwal
NUCLEAR POWERNuclear power is the use of sustained nuclearfisson to generate heat and electricity.Nuclear power plants provide about 6% of theworld’s energy 13-14% of the world’selectricity, with U.S., France and Japan together accounting forabout 50% of nuclear generated electricity. In2007, the IAEA reported there were 439 nuclearpower reactors in operations in the world,operating in 31 countries
PURPOSEThe purpose of a nuclear power plant is notto produce or release “Nuclear Power.” Thepurpose of a nuclear power plant is toproduce electricity. It should not besurprising, then, that a nuclear power planthas many similarities to other electricalgenerating facilities. It should also be obviousthat nuclear power plants have somesignificant differences from other plants
Prevailing Views before the Discovery Modern atomic theory by John Dalton in the early years of the 19th century Each chemical element is composed of atoms of a SINGLE, unique type, and that though they are both immutable and indestructible, they can combine to form more complex structures The total mass in a chemical reaction remains CONSTANT
E=MC2This equation, by Einstein, was published in in1905. It suggested that especially small amounts of matter can produce especially large amount of energy.This theory sparked interest around the worldwhich lead to the discovery of nuclear power
Splitting the Atom John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton were given credit for first splitting the atom in 1932. Using an 800-kilovolt transformer, they accelerated protons down and 8ft tube. The protons slammed into a lithium atom thus splitting the atom in half.
Nuclear Fission This term was coin in 1938 by Lisa Meitner while she, Otto Hahn, Fitz Strassmann, and Otto Frisch were splitting uranium atoms. They found that sending a neutron through a uranium atom results in a lighter atom and a burst of energy. Meitner and Frisch then calculated the energy produced thus proving Einstein’s E=MC2.
Self-Sustaining Reaction Enrico Fermi had same results in 1934 but didn’t realize he was actually splitting atoms. He was focusing on the radioactivity produced By 1940, Fermi confirmed that nuclear fission can produce a self-sustaining reaction
Nuclear Weapon An explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. A fission bomb uses radiationto compress and heat a separate section offusion fuel.
The United States is the only nation to haveever used nuclear weapons during war, usingtwo atomic bombs on the Japanese cities ofHiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty A treaty to limit the spread of nuclear weapons Opened for signature on July 1, 1968 There are currently 189 countries party to the treaty, five of which have nuclear weapons: the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia,The Peoples Republic of China, India.
Nuclear EnergyThe sun and stars are seeminglyinexhaustible sources of energy. That energyis the result of nuclear reactions, in whichmatter is converted to energy. We have beenable to harness that mechanism andregularly use it to generate power. Presently,nuclear energy provides for approximately16% of the worlds electricity. Unlike thestars, the nuclear reactors that we havetoday work on the principle of nuclearfission. Scientists are working like madmento make fusion reactors which have thepotential of providing more energy withfewer disadvantages than fission reactors.
Nuclear Energy • Nuclear Energy Started about 35 years ago in 1973, because of the oil crisis • In 1973 17% of US electric power was produced from oil, while in 1990 only 4% of oil was used to produce electricity • In 1973 nuclear energy produced 5% of US electricity, in 1990 21%. • As of 2005, nuclear power provided 6.3% of the worlds energy and 15% of the worlds electricity,
Advantages of Nuclear Energy The Earth has limited supplies of coal and oil. Nuclear power plants could still produce electricity after coal and oil become scarce. Nuclear power plants need less fuel than ones which burn fossil fuels. One ton of uranium produces more energy than is produced by several million tons of coal or several million barrels of oil. Coal and oil burning plants pollute the air. Well-operated nuclear power plants do not release contaminants into the environment.