Joan Heinsohn, Molly Sherer, Kim Zieroth, Mary Bahe
What is Phonemic Awareness? (PA) The understanding, identifying, and manipulation of how sounds work in spoken words. (Put Reading First, pg. 2).
• This is an oral/spoken not written skill• These sounds are called phonemes• These oral sounds/phonemes can be combined to create spoken words
Wait a minute……Is P h o n e m i c Aw are n e s s and P h o n o lo g i c alAw are n e s s the same thing? OR
What is Phonological Awareness? (PoA)The “identifying and manipulating largerparts of spoken language, such as words,syllables, and onsets and rimes, as well asphonemes” (Put Reading First pg. 3).
Sub categories in POA-• Rhymes – oral/spoken words• Syllables – written words• Onset – oral/spoken in syllables (words) – A sound before the vowel (ex. Chow – ch (/ch/)• Individual Phonemes (FA) – oral/spoken words
What about P h o n e m i c Aw are n e s s and Ph on ics
Phonemic Awareness PhonicsP H O N E M IC A W A R E N W S S P H O N IC S Auditory Visual Speech based Print based Speech sounds to letters Letters have sounds Phonemes Letter pronunciation Letter & word Phoneme discrimination identification Natural units of sounds Artificial code (alphabet)
Why do we teach/expose students to PA? “PA predicts reading ability.”• Helps Children learn to read- – Children need to hear the phonemes before they can link them to graphemes- otherwise they will struggle in reading – Improve Comprehension through fluency, decoding, and vocabulary• Improves children’s spelling- through segmenting words into phonemes
How do you know if a child struggles with phonemic awareness?• Cannot put words into groups using similar or dissimilar sounds (cat, car, fur)• Cannot separate or connect syllables (ti/ger)• Cannot blend sounds into words (m-a-p)• Cannot break words into segments (/p/ /a/ /t/)
T e a c h e r s n e e d t o b e a b le t o s e le c t a s s e s s m e n t me tho d s to ma tc h the k in d s o f in f o r m a t io n t h e y• Word Identification w a nt.• -DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills)• *Initial Sounds Fluency• Given individually• Recognize & produce initial sound in an orally presented word• * Phoneme Segmentation Fluency• *Individual test• *Measures ability to segment 3 or 4 phoneme words into their individual• phonemes fluently• -Yopp Singer Phonemic Test (Also Spanish)• *Rubber band Stretch to model segmentation
• Comprehension: Running records, response to literature or print, reading conferences• -QRI (Qualitative Reading Inventory)• -DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills)• -CELF (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals)• Motivation: Shared reading, independent reading, read-alouds, surveys,• -CAP(Creative Assessment Packet)• -Reading Self-Concept Scale• Montoring Progress• *Students should be assessed 2-3 times per year until goal reached• *Teacher monitor/record informally ( Ex.-student group chart with point system)
How can we work on phonemic awareness?• Teach children to manipulate phonemes by using letters – Teach letters (teach alongside of PA) – Blending phonemes to create words – Segmenting phonemes in words – spelling• Focus on 1 – 2 phonemes manipulation, rather than several types – Research - Children who learn 1-2 types of manipulation of phonemes make better gains in reading and spelling • Manipulating Phonemes- • Blending Phonemes – • Segmenting Words –
How should we teach PA?• Small Group Direct and Explicit Instruction- – Feedback from teacher and classmates• At Instructional level of students• Skill Activities – – Identifying Phonemes • Guess the name game – Categorize Phonemes • Odd word out • Who goes together
– Blend Phonemes to form words • Guess the word game– Segmenting words (C- first sound, last sounds, and complete)– Delete or add phonemes to form new words • Change the name game– Substituting phonemes to make new words • Change the phoneme game