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SITE 2019 - K-12 Distance and Online Learning Services Provided to Minority Language Students in Canada

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LaBonte, R., & Barbour, M. K. (2019, March). K-12 distance and online learning services provided to minority language students in Canada. A full paper presentation at the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

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SITE 2019 - K-12 Distance and Online Learning Services Provided to Minority Language Students in Canada

  1. 1. Minority Language e-Learning Services in Canada Randy LaBonte Canadian eLearning Network Michael K. Barbour Touro University California
  2. 2. About the Study • Selected by the Centre francophone d’éducation à distance (CFÉD) • Examine distance learning services offered by providers in minority language communities across Canada to determine o a comparison of equity, funding and parity between Francophone programs and equivalent Anglophone programs
  3. 3. Section 23: Minority Language Educational Rights (1) Citizens of Canada: a) first language learned and still understood is that of the English or French linguistic minority population of the province in which they reside, or b) who have received their primary school instruction in Canada in English or French and reside in a province where the language in which they received that instruction is the language of the English or French linguistic minority population of the province, have the right to have their children receive primary and secondary school instruction in that language in that province. (2) Citizens of Canada of whom any child has received or is receiving primary or secondary school instruction in English or French in Canada, have the right to have all their children receive primary and secondary school instruction in the same language. (3) The right of citizens of Canada under subsections (1) and (2) to have their children receive primary and secondary school instruction in the language of the English or French linguistic minority population of a province: a) applies wherever in the province the number of children of citizens who have such a right is sufficient to warrant the provision to them out of public funds of minority language instruction; and b) includes, where the number of those children so warrants, the right to have them receive that instruction in minority language educational facilities provided out of public funds. Canadian Charter of Rights & Freedoms
  4. 4. Minority Languages in Canada • Charter of Rights and Freedoms enshrines student’s right to education in own language (i.e., French or English) o a minority language ‘guarantee’ • As education is a provincial responsibility, the federal government enters into agreements with provinces and territories to provide funding • Issues exist for delivery of minority language instruction in rural areas
  5. 5. Minority Languages in Canada • Protocol for Agreements for Minority Language Education and Second-Language Instruction o stipulated that the federal Government would contribute more than $743 million over five years to the provinces and • However, according to the Fédération nationale des conseils scolaires francophones (2016) how these funds were allocated by each Ministry of Education was not clear, consistent, or inclusive of the needs of local communities. o Quebec the annual federal contribution was $64,932,135, while in Alberta it was $14,205,828 o DE funds for Anglophone students in Quebec was $750,000 to $800,000, while only $100,000 for Francophone students in Alberta o This meant that 1.15% of Ententé funds flowed to minority- language DE students in Quebec, while only 0.7% flowed in Alberta.
  6. 6. National Overview
  7. 7. Activity: Distance & Online Learning
  8. 8. Methodology Quantitative data collection • Online survey o curriculum; course development; educational services; resources and assessment tools; funding models; programming; staffing; quality standards; delivery models; and delivery mediums (including synchronous and asynchronous delivery) • Sent to program o Francophone and minority language education settings in Canada and to select Alberta distance learning providers
  9. 9. Methodology Qualitative data collection • Interviews focused on: o identifying needs, current and future, for both schools and learners; o collecting data on learner performance, engagement and program completion; o understanding learner access to quality learning resources and learning environment; and o collecting information on current funding models, strengths and limitations. • Leaders of online services for Francophone and Anglophone programs
  10. 10. Methodology Data Sources • Leading English Education and Resource Network (LEARN) • Consortium d’apprentissage virtuel de langue française de l’Ontario (CAVLFO) • École virtuelle du Conseil des écoles fransaskoises (EVCEF) • Centre francophone d’éducation à distance (CFÉD) • École Virtuelle du Conseil scolaire francophone (EVCSF)
  11. 11. Key Findings • All Francophone DE programs were supported by a consortium of Francophone school boards • Ontario provided access to some resources, but other provinces did not
  12. 12. Key Findings • Francophone program administrators reported underfunding, Anglophone program did not • All Francophone programs reported increasing enrolment, yet funding was not increasing • Federal funding was not enough for DE • Different funding models in provinces have led to inequities given varied provincial funding • Widening gap between Anglophone and Francophone services in each province
  13. 13. Key Findings • Alberta Anglophone online program funded based on enrolment o Historically funded by conditional grant, but that changed in recent years • Alberta Francophone online program funded based on conditional grant from Ministry o Unless the conditions were met to the satisfaction of Ministry, the funding was not guaranteed
  14. 14. Key Findings • While the percentage of DE enrolment in Canada is least in the east, greatest in the west o Québec Anglophone DE program is double the Francophone program o BC and Alberta report the highest enrolment in DE, yet Francophone is less than elsewhere and, at best, static or declining • Accordingly, there appears to be a widening gap between Anglophone and Francophone DE services across Canada, notably in the west • In Canada, Francophone DE programs are not keeping pace with Anglophone programs
  15. 15. Key Findings Province # of K-12 students # enrolled in DE % involved # of K-12 Francophone students (2013-14) # of Francophone students in DE % involved NB 98,906 2,527 2.5% 29124 900 3.09% ON 2,003,253 ~94,500 4.7% 98697 2500 2.53% SK 176,301 ~12,000 6.8% 1460 250 17.12% AB 691,876 ~60,000 8.7% 6277 450 7.17% BC 635,037 69,735 11.0% 4744 150 3.16% Province # of K-12 students (2014) # enrolled in DE % involved # of K-12 Anglophone students (2013-14) # of Anglophone students in DE % involved QC 1,003,322 ~41,000 4.1% 87850 9,400 10.70%
  16. 16. Additional References • Canadian eLearning Network https://canelearn.net/ • Étude de parité de services en FAD (Alberta) https://canelearn.net/research/canelearn- research-projects/cfed/ • State of the Nation: K-12 e-Learning in Canada https://k12sotn.ca/
  17. 17. Your Questions and Comments
  18. 18. Associate Professor of Instructional Design Touro University California mkbarbour@gmail.com http://www.michaelbarbour.com

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