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What Can K-12 Online
Learning Learn From the
Higher Education Literature?
Michael K. Barbour
Associate Professor, Instruct...
Background
• a MVLRI report (soon to be released)
• asked to examine 6-8 studies from higher education
that could be used ...
Current State of the Field
• 4 main reviews summarizing the state of literature
o Rice (2006)
o Barbour & Reeves (2009)
o ...
Current State of the Field
• “a paucity of research exists when examining
high school students enrolled in virtual schools...
Current State of the Field
• “based upon the personal experiences of those
involved in the practice of virtual schooling”
...
Maturing As a Field
• K-12 online and blended learning isn’t going
away and, likely, isn’t decreasing in usage
• Researche...
Maturing As a Field
• There are almost no models, conceptual
frameworks or theories focused on K-12 online and
blended lea...
Maturing As a Field
• At various times and by various authors, we have
distance, virtual or K-12 online learning; virtual,...
Associate Professor, Instructional Design
Touro University, California
mkbarbour@gmail.com
http://www.michaelbarbour.com
h...
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SITE 2017 - SITE Joint SIG Symposia: A Collaboration Between the K-12 Online Learning SIG and Distance Learning SIG: How Higher Education and K-12 Online Learning Research Can Impact Each Other

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Ferdig, R., Litz, T. Niess, M., Davis, A., Marcovitz, D., Archambault, L., Rice, K., Barbour, M. K., Garrett-Dikkers, A., & Whiteside, A. (2017, March). SITE Joint SIG Symposia: A collaboration between the K-12 Online Learning SIG and Distance Learning SIG: How higher education and K-12 online learning research can impact each other. A panel presentation at the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education conference, Austin, TX.

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SITE 2017 - SITE Joint SIG Symposia: A Collaboration Between the K-12 Online Learning SIG and Distance Learning SIG: How Higher Education and K-12 Online Learning Research Can Impact Each Other

  1. 1. What Can K-12 Online Learning Learn From the Higher Education Literature? Michael K. Barbour Associate Professor, Instructional Design Touro University, California
  2. 2. Background • a MVLRI report (soon to be released) • asked to examine 6-8 studies from higher education that could be used to provide lessons for the practice and research in K-12 online and blended learning • soliciting suggestions from a snowball sample of K- 12 online and blended learning educators • examined highly cited articles from prominent educational technology and distance education journals
  3. 3. Current State of the Field • 4 main reviews summarizing the state of literature o Rice (2006) o Barbour & Reeves (2009) o Cavanaugh, Barbour & Clark (2009) o Hasler Waters, Barbour, & Menchaca (2014) 1. Effectiveness of K-12 online learning 2. Examinations of the qualities and characteristics of the online teaching and learning experience
  4. 4. Current State of the Field • “a paucity of research exists when examining high school students enrolled in virtual schools, and the research base is smaller still when the population of students is further narrowed to the elementary grades” (Rice, 2006) • a number of scholars have documented the absence of rigorous reviews of virtual schools (Barbour & Reeves, 2009)
  5. 5. Current State of the Field • “based upon the personal experiences of those involved in the practice of virtual schooling” (Cavanaugh et al., 2009) • “in many ways, this [was] indicative of the foundational descriptive work that often precedes experimentation in any scientific field” (Cavanaugh et al., 2009)
  6. 6. Maturing As a Field • K-12 online and blended learning isn’t going away and, likely, isn’t decreasing in usage • Researchers need to stop asking it is as effective as brick-and-mortar instruction • The literature documents teachers inability to adequately judge their pedagogical actions • Students do not have the expertise to know what is best from an educational perspective • Researchers need to stop conducting studies focused primarily on perception data in isolation
  7. 7. Maturing As a Field • There are almost no models, conceptual frameworks or theories focused on K-12 online and blended learning • Most K-12 online and blended learning research is theoretical • Researchers need to begin to develop or adopt models, conceptual frameworks or theoretical foundations to guide their research • Given this reality, there are few recognized tools • Researchers need to created and/or use validated instruments to test models, conceptual frameworks and theoretical foundations
  8. 8. Maturing As a Field • At various times and by various authors, we have distance, virtual or K-12 online learning; virtual, cyber or electronic schools; blended or hybrid learning; etc. • Researchers need to defining the characteristics of what is being researched and be consistent in their use of terms • The spectrum of K-12 online and blended learning is varied on numerous fronts. • Researchers need to focus their efforts on addressing the challenges of individual programs
  9. 9. Associate Professor, Instructional Design Touro University, California mkbarbour@gmail.com http://www.michaelbarbour.com http://virtualschooling.wordpress.com

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