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How Long Must We Wait?
Michael K. Barbour
Associate Professor, Instructional Design
Touro University, California
Davis (2007)
Borup (2015)
Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning
Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning
What Do We Know?
• a number of scholars have documented the
absence of rigorous reviews of virtual schools
(Barbour & Reev...
What Does The Research Say?
1. Comparisons of student performance based upon
delivery model (i.e., classroom vs. online)
2...
What Does The Research Say?
• Rice (2006) first reported on this policy literature
by describing it as focused on “efforts...
What Do We Know?
• Cavanaugh, Barbour and Clark (2009) defended
this state of affairs, writing that “in many ways,
this [w...
Why Is This A Problem?
Lack of research means…
• General lack of understanding of the field as a
whole -> lack of importan...
Associate Professor, Instructional Design
Touro University, California
mkbarbour@gmail.com
http://www.michaelbarbour.com
h...
SITE 2017 - K12 Online and Blended Learning: Current Research and Challenges into Implementation and Teacher Education
SITE 2017 - K12 Online and Blended Learning: Current Research and Challenges into Implementation and Teacher Education
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SITE 2017 - K12 Online and Blended Learning: Current Research and Challenges into Implementation and Teacher Education

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Jackson, B., Barbour, M. K., Parks, R., & Kennedy, K.
(2017, March). K12 online and blended learning: Current research and challenges into implementation and teacher education. A panel presentation at the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education conference, Austin, TX.

Published in: Education
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SITE 2017 - K12 Online and Blended Learning: Current Research and Challenges into Implementation and Teacher Education

  1. 1. How Long Must We Wait? Michael K. Barbour Associate Professor, Instructional Design Touro University, California
  2. 2. Davis (2007)
  3. 3. Borup (2015)
  4. 4. Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning
  5. 5. Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning
  6. 6. What Do We Know? • a number of scholars have documented the absence of rigorous reviews of virtual schools (Barbour & Reeves, 2009). • “based upon the personal experiences of those involved in the practice of virtual schooling” (Cavanaugh, Barbour & Clark , 2009) • “a paucity of research exists when examining high school students enrolled in virtual schools, and the research base is smaller still when the population of students is further narrowed to the elementary grades” (Rice, 2006)
  7. 7. What Does The Research Say? 1. Comparisons of student performance based upon delivery model (i.e., classroom vs. online) 2. Studies examining the qualities and characteristics of the teaching/learning experience – characteristics of – supports provided to – issues related to isolation of online learners (Rice, 2006) 1 Effectiveness of virtual schooling 2 Student readiness and retention issues (Cavanaugh et al., 2009)
  8. 8. What Does The Research Say? • Rice (2006) first reported on this policy literature by describing it as focused on “efforts to promote a change in traditional views of education in the K-12 environment” (p. 428) • most recent policy literature has tended to focus on the role for-profit corporations and educational management organizations, particularly within the online/cyber charter school industry: o “(a) lack of oversight/accountability, (b) improper use of public funds, (c) failing grades, and (d) drop out rates that are higher than their traditional school counterparts” (Hasler Waters, Barbour, & Menchaca, 2014, p. 383)
  9. 9. What Do We Know? • Cavanaugh, Barbour and Clark (2009) defended this state of affairs, writing that “in many ways, this [was] indicative of the foundational descriptive work that often precedes experimentation in any scientific field” • We can ask, however, how long must we wait? (Barbour, 2011)
  10. 10. Why Is This A Problem? Lack of research means… • General lack of understanding of the field as a whole -> lack of importance assigned to the field • No models for teacher education or professional development • No best practices and few promising practices
  11. 11. Associate Professor, Instructional Design Touro University, California mkbarbour@gmail.com http://www.michaelbarbour.com http://virtualschooling.wordpress.com

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