Preparing for and Thriving in
K-12 Online/Blended Teaching
Contexts: An International
Perspective
 Leanna Archambault, Ph...
K-12 Online Teacher Preparation Ed Policy
• As the number of K-12 students participating in
various forms of online learni...
Education Policy and Virtual Schooling
• Increasing number of changes to state-level policy
governing virtual schooling
• ...
• Developments in policy been coupled with an increased
emphasis on preparing educators to teach in online and
blended con...
Importance of Policy
• While the call for better preparation and certification of
online and blended teachers is not neces...
Research Questions
• What national, state, and local policies currently exist
to ensure teacher quality in the online
envi...
PolicyAnalysis
• Providing a historical background,
• Presenting a description of the issue, and
• Offering an analysis of...
PolicyAnalysis
a) existing and relevant literature within the field of K-
12 online teaching,
b) pertinent state laws and ...
Online Teaching Requirements
• Teachers at public schools are required to hold teaching
licenses and maintain their highly...
Avenues of Preparation
• Several disparate avenues of formal preparation
exist intended to meet the demand for additional
...
Georgia
• Enacted in 2006 as the first
state-level endorsement
• Add on to existing certificate
• Programs are approved by...
“Allcolleges anduniversities approvedbytheBoardof
Teachingtopreparepersons forclassroomteacher
licensuremustinclude inthei...
Minnesota
• The law also requires that staff development for in-
service teachers include activities that “effectively
del...
Policy Recommendations
• Curriculum should be aligned with
national standards for online
teaching
• Mandate field experien...
Acknowledgement
Special thanks to the
Michigan Virtual Learning
Research Institute for
supporting this research
through th...
Preparing for and Thriving in K-12
Online/Blended Teaching
Contexts: A NZ perspective Keryn Pratt
Context: Country
Aotearoa New
Zealand
• 4.3 million people
• Approx 1.6 times the
size of Florida
• National
curriculum, school
based
inter...
Context
Call for schools to cater for students with
diverse needs (Alton-Lee, 2003)
New Zealand has a sparse population, a...
OtagoNet Solution
Utilise the specialist teachers throughout the
region to teach each other’s students
One hour videoconfe...
The OtagoNet model
2001 OtagoNet planned
2002 OtagoNet first started offering classes
2002 11 classes to 60 students
2011 ...
The OtagoNet model
Staffed by:
– Project Leader
– eDean
– eLibrarian
– Executive officer
– eTeachers
– School coordinators...
Research
OtagoNet evaluation (2001 – 2004) (CTO):
• Longitudinal evaluation of this new collaborative and
innovative appro...
So what did the research say?
What skills and knowledge are needed?
How to use the technology
I felt confident enough with the technology to cope
and, I mean if I managed to push a wrong but...
How to use the technology effectively
I would love to go and watch some other classes
instead of me being in this seat all...
The limitations of the technology
• The frequency of the system was such that it
affected physic experiments
• Teachers le...
Be willing to step outside your comfort
zone
Feelings of, well this is interesting, this is new, this
is different, could ...
Be able to deal with frustrations
Frustration, at the early days . . . with the
technology when the picture freezes and th...
To be organised
I think that teachers have to be twice as prepared
for this type of lesson as for any other lesson
because...
To ensure you can create relationships
with your students
The last lead group meeting I was at, there was
quite a bit of c...
To create ways of getting feedback
If I’m sitting in an ordinary class and I teach them
something and give examples, all t...
To have support
Lots of TLC for the staff that are involved at times.
The stress factors when the technology breaks
down a...
To think about pedagogy
It’s a huge jump from taking a programme that
you’re used to delivering in a class, face-to-
face,...
Their pedagogical approach changed
Most times they’re not sitting there for a whole
hour. I do try to put some practical w...
Flow on effect
Over time, the pedagogical changes made
in the distance classes started affecting their
traditional classes
Acknowledgements
Co-researchers:
Kwok-Wing Lai, Ann Trewern, Andrea Robertson, University of
Otago
Ken Pullar, Lynda Walsh...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/flissphil/5256025796/
Michael Barbour
Sacred Heart University
Jurisdiction # of K-12 students # enroled in distance education Percent involvement
NL 67,604 1,232 1.8%
NS 128,131 ~2,550...
 Limited Canadian opportunities focused on
preparation of K-12 online teachers
 Growing number of US-based opportunities...
Diploma in TeleLearning and Rural School Teaching
 TeleLearning in a Rural School Intranet
 Effective Teaching Strategie...
Teaching and Learning Online
 Course Aims and Objectives
o to critically examine present and proposed uses of
the Interne...
 Additional Qualification for Teaching & Learning Through e-Learning
 Introduced in August 2009
o analyzing, interpretin...
 Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario
o http://etfo-aq.ca/catalogue/teaching-and-learning-through-e-learning/
 Nip...
 Graduate Certificate in Online Learning
Facilitation
o Royal Roads University
 Graduate Certificate in Online Teaching
...
http://www.teachertube.com/videoList.php?pg=uservideoli
st&user_id=1790
Director of Doctoral Studies
Sacred Heart University, USA
mkbarbour@gmail.com
http://www.michaelbarbour.com
http://virtual...
SITE 2014 - Preparing For and Thriving in K-12 Online/Blended Teaching Contexts
SITE 2014 - Preparing For and Thriving in K-12 Online/Blended Teaching Contexts
SITE 2014 - Preparing For and Thriving in K-12 Online/Blended Teaching Contexts
SITE 2014 - Preparing For and Thriving in K-12 Online/Blended Teaching Contexts
SITE 2014 - Preparing For and Thriving in K-12 Online/Blended Teaching Contexts
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SITE 2014 - Preparing For and Thriving in K-12 Online/Blended Teaching Contexts

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Archambault, L., Pratt, K., & Barbour, M. K. (2014, March). Preparing for and thriving in K-12 online/blended teaching contexts. A panel presentation at the annual conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

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  • Instead of the current fragmented, convoluted system that involves multiple organizations and agents acting in isolation, there is a need for state-level policy to outline and direct a pragmatic and systematic approach toward preparing and licensing large numbers of high quality, well-prepared online and blended teachers.
  • Teachers must hold (a) a college degree, (b) demonstrate subject-matter knowledge, and (c) meet any state licensure requirements. Subject matter knowledge can be demonstrated through majoring in the subject in college, taking courses that would be equivalent to a major, earning an advanced degree or credential in the subject, or passing a rigorous state test in the subject (NCLB, 2001). The vast majority of online and blended teachers are qualified under current No Child Left Behind requirements.
  • Additionally, given the non-specificity of the language and lack of clear expectations, it is feared that that colleges and universities who consider themselves to already in compliance, and will make few, if any, changes, to their teacher preparation programs.
  • We see the world somewhat differently from you . . .1343 miles SE of Australia
  • SITE 2014 - Preparing For and Thriving in K-12 Online/Blended Teaching Contexts

    1. 1. Preparing for and Thriving in K-12 Online/Blended Teaching Contexts: An International Perspective  Leanna Archambault, Ph.D., Arizona State University  Keryn Pratt, Ph.D., University of Otago  Michael Barbour, Ph.D., Sacred Heart University
    2. 2. K-12 Online Teacher Preparation Ed Policy • As the number of K-12 students participating in various forms of online learning steadily rises, teacher quality is of paramount concern. • State level policy from across the nation beginning to establish mechanisms to ensure online teacher quality. • Policy recommendations needed to help inform the development of high quality online teachers
    3. 3. Education Policy and Virtual Schooling • Increasing number of changes to state-level policy governing virtual schooling • Online learning requirement currently in Michigan (2006), Alabama (2008), Florida (2011), Arkansas (2012), North Carolina (2012), and Virginia (2012). • Florida mandate that all school districts offer some form of online learning (2011) • Michigan (2013) now allowing students and parents the right to attend two online courses per term while maintaining enrollment
    4. 4. • Developments in policy been coupled with an increased emphasis on preparing educators to teach in online and blended contexts (Archambault, 2011). • At present only a handful of states (Georgia, Idaho, Michigan, Louisiana, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Utah) have adopted online teacher standards with a state-level teaching license dealing with online teaching, • Georgia and Idaho are the first states to offer specific teaching endorsements in K-12 online teaching. Education Policy and Virtual Schooling
    5. 5. Importance of Policy • While the call for better preparation and certification of online and blended teachers is not necessarily a novel one (Cavanaugh, 2004; Ferdig et al., 2009), it remains largely unrealized. • State-level policy needs to be the impetus for the creation and retention of a prepared online and blended teaching teacher workforce. • As a result, a systematic, coordinated approach to policy and preparation is needed.
    6. 6. Research Questions • What national, state, and local policies currently exist to ensure teacher quality in the online environment, including formal mechanisms for preparation and professional development? • What policy recommendations can be made to help ensure teacher quality in the online environment?
    7. 7. PolicyAnalysis • Providing a historical background, • Presenting a description of the issue, and • Offering an analysis of the goals, feasibility, and impact of implementing the policy (Karger & Stoesz, 2009) • Presenting related data that attempt to clarify a problem while examining the cause and effects surrounding the issue, considering the impact of various solutions.
    8. 8. PolicyAnalysis a) existing and relevant literature within the field of K- 12 online teaching, b) pertinent state laws and state-level policy decisions made available via the websites of individual state legislatures, and c) interviews with three key stakeholders – Associate Director of Strategic Planning at Georgia Virtual – Director of Program Development for the Idaho Digital Learning Academy – President of the Minnesota K-12 Online Learning Alliance
    9. 9. Online Teaching Requirements • Teachers at public schools are required to hold teaching licenses and maintain their highly qualified status (NCLB, 2001). • Currently, however, there is no distinction between the preparation requirements based on the teaching environment. • Exception is Wisconsin, the first and only state to mandate that beginning in 2010, K-12 online teachers have 30 hours of professional development pertaining to online teaching (Public Instruction, 2009), but has been repealed (Wisconsin Legislative Data, 2013).
    10. 10. Avenues of Preparation • Several disparate avenues of formal preparation exist intended to meet the demand for additional preparation: • national online teaching certificates • state-level online teaching endorsements • professional development opportunities provided by non-profit organizations, professional organizations, virtual schools and/or other K-12 online learning programs.
    11. 11. Georgia • Enacted in 2006 as the first state-level endorsement • Add on to existing certificate • Programs are approved by the Georgia Professional Standards Commission (GPSC) • Curriculum based on Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Standards for Quality Online Teaching • Includes required practica component • Not required to teach online Georgia Idaho • Enacted in 2011 • Add on to existing certificate • Curriculum based on International Society for Educational Technology National Educational Technology Standards (ISTE NETS) • Includes a required 8- week online K-12 teaching experience • Not required to teach online in Idaho Endorsement in K-12 Online Education
    12. 12. “Allcolleges anduniversities approvedbytheBoardof Teachingtopreparepersons forclassroomteacher licensuremustinclude intheirteacher preparation programs theknowledge andskillsteachercandidates needtodeliverdigitalandblendedlearningand curriculumandengage students withtechnology. This sectioniseffective forcandidates enteringateacher preparationprogramafterJune30,2014” – Minnesota Senate Bill 273 § 1528.1.3a, (2012)
    13. 13. Minnesota • The law also requires that staff development for in- service teachers include activities that “effectively deliver digital and blended learning and curriculum and engage students with technology.” • Statute is still relatively new and its full effects have yet to be seen. • Initial critiques is its vague, non-prescriptive language. • Concern that the well-guided intent of the statute to recognize and provide instruction related to online and blended teaching will be thwarted by insufficient or misguided implementation.
    14. 14. Policy Recommendations • Curriculum should be aligned with national standards for online teaching • Mandate field experience or online teaching experience for endorsement • Teacher prep programs need to partner with online course providers and districts • Move toward more widespread integration of online and blended teaching into teacher prep programs for preservice and inservice teachers prepare innovate lead
    15. 15. Acknowledgement Special thanks to the Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute for supporting this research through their Fellowship program, and in particular, thank you to Dr. Kristen DeBruler and Dr. Joseph Freidhoff
    16. 16. Preparing for and Thriving in K-12 Online/Blended Teaching Contexts: A NZ perspective Keryn Pratt
    17. 17. Context: Country
    18. 18. Aotearoa New Zealand • 4.3 million people • Approx 1.6 times the size of Florida • National curriculum, school based interpretation, extern al exams
    19. 19. Context Call for schools to cater for students with diverse needs (Alton-Lee, 2003) New Zealand has a sparse population, and rural populations are declining Schools, particularly small, rural schools, have insufficient specialised teachers to provide wide range of subjects
    20. 20. OtagoNet Solution Utilise the specialist teachers throughout the region to teach each other’s students One hour videoconference per week, supplemented by other tools • Textbooks, workbooks, online tools Classes start on the hour, and are prioritised over other classes
    21. 21. The OtagoNet model 2001 OtagoNet planned 2002 OtagoNet first started offering classes 2002 11 classes to 60 students 2011 26 classes to 340 students • between 26% and 90% of students involved in some form of blended learning 20+ clusters throughout New Zealand Over 200 schools and other organisations
    22. 22. The OtagoNet model Staffed by: – Project Leader – eDean – eLibrarian – Executive officer – eTeachers – School coordinators Reciprocal model eHui
    23. 23. Research OtagoNet evaluation (2001 – 2004) (CTO): • Longitudinal evaluation of this new collaborative and innovative approach to teaching and learning Blended learning part 1 (2009): • Small scale mixed method study exploring students’ experiences Blended learning part 2 (2010) (TLRI): • Built on previous study; involved students and teachers from 10 schools in a mixed method study Blended learning part 3 (2012) (UoO): • Building on what we know so far • Increasing focus on supporting students
    24. 24. So what did the research say? What skills and knowledge are needed?
    25. 25. How to use the technology I felt confident enough with the technology to cope and, I mean if I managed to push a wrong button, I just think, whoops, pushed the wrong button, sorry. And then just keep going. I don’t feel phased or scared by it (e-teacher).
    26. 26. How to use the technology effectively I would love to go and watch some other classes instead of me being in this seat all the time (e- teacher). And there’s still plenty to learn and I think we need that ongoing, because it’s like anything, you get in your comfort zone, you get used to doing something, you need to be urged into that next level otherwise, we could just stay at the level all the time and not get better at it (e-teacher).
    27. 27. The limitations of the technology • The frequency of the system was such that it affected physic experiments • Teachers learnt rapidly that the picture would be better if they did not use rapid movements (or wear stripes!)
    28. 28. Be willing to step outside your comfort zone Feelings of, well this is interesting, this is new, this is different, could be a challenge and also feelings of I guess excitement and stimulation . . . there was also sort of lots of feelings of . . . and then I’m sort of thinking, ohh God, this technology leaves me cold and I’m thinking no, I can’t feel like that . . . I’m trying to sort of be positive and sort of treat it as a bit of a personal challenge (e-teacher prior to initial lessons).
    29. 29. Be able to deal with frustrations Frustration, at the early days . . . with the technology when the picture freezes and there’s no sound, or you can’t dial in or the person is not there, you arrange a time and they’re not there, there’s been no message that they’re not at school today (e-teacher).
    30. 30. To be organised I think that teachers have to be twice as prepared for this type of lesson as for any other lesson because they cannot just casually wander off and pick up another resource. The resources have got to be there (principal). • Also need to ensure that students at remote sites had the resources they needed.
    31. 31. To ensure you can create relationships with your students The last lead group meeting I was at, there was quite a bit of concern from the e-teachers that they weren’t getting this two-way communication from their students and their classes and that was a bit of an issue and I think that all of our students need more support in how to, and more direction in using the e-mail (principal). I still feel I do too much talking and trying to make sure they’re included (e-teacher)
    32. 32. To create ways of getting feedback If I’m sitting in an ordinary class and I teach them something and give examples, all the usual stuff and say okay, anyone not understand, you can tell by their body language who’s got it and who hasn’t, but not this one because there’s nothing . . . Only the one the camera’s sitting on can you tell. The others you can’t see and if you actually poll around them one at a time, it’s too late then because they’re all attentive then . . . So there’s a loss of feedback from the class (e-teacher) There’s a lot of visual and verbal feedback that the video doesn’t quite give you the full
    33. 33. To have support Lots of TLC for the staff that are involved at times. The stress factors when the technology breaks down and you get stressed staff at one end or their e-mails get lost or something along the line or their faxes don’t get through or the assessments don’t get done and so it can be a bit more stressful if the kids are further away so there’s probably more support needed (principal).
    34. 34. To think about pedagogy It’s a huge jump from taking a programme that you’re used to delivering in a class, face-to- face, five days a week and then getting it into this medium (e-teacher). It was very, very obvious that I really had to pack a full week into one hour, or a full four hours into one hour. So the preparation for that, working out exactly what to put in and what to leave out, what to send by mail and what to deliver on air became quite, quite critical (e-teacher).
    35. 35. Their pedagogical approach changed Most times they’re not sitting there for a whole hour. I do try to put some practical work into each hour so that they are having their input as well . . . because it would have been terribly boring for them to sit there for 50 minutes listening to me rabbit on (e-teacher). I think teachers have adopted, by and large, a good philosophy about the type of teaching. Less lecturing, more question and answer, more direct feedback to students and good hands-on sort of teaching (principal).
    36. 36. Flow on effect Over time, the pedagogical changes made in the distance classes started affecting their traditional classes
    37. 37. Acknowledgements Co-researchers: Kwok-Wing Lai, Ann Trewern, Andrea Robertson, University of Otago Ken Pullar, Lynda Walsh-Pasco, Linda Miller, Lyn Cooper, John Buchanan Funding agencies: Community Trust of Otago Teaching and Learning Research Initiative University of Otago Participants
    38. 38. http://www.flickr.com/photos/flissphil/5256025796/
    39. 39. Michael Barbour Sacred Heart University
    40. 40. Jurisdiction # of K-12 students # enroled in distance education Percent involvement NL 67,604 1,232 1.8% NS 128,131 ~2,550 2.0% PE 20,406 62 0.3% NB 101,079 ~2,250 2.2% QC 1,306,848 39,618 3.0% ON 2,051,865 76,337 3.7% MB 195,152 11,351 5.8% SK 169,939 ~8,000* 4.7% AB 616,375 63,238 10.3% BC 638,835 78,168 12.2% YT 5,122 74 1.4% NT 8,300 267 3.2% NU 9,074 11 0.1% Federal 138,400 1,805 0.1% Total 5,456,800 284,963 5.2%
    41. 41.  Limited Canadian opportunities focused on preparation of K-12 online teachers  Growing number of US-based opportunities  Some open access online resources
    42. 42. Diploma in TeleLearning and Rural School Teaching  TeleLearning in a Rural School Intranet  Effective Teaching Strategies for Multi-grade/Multi-age Classrooms  Special Needs in the Context of Rural Schools  Leadership Perspectives in Rural Schools  Contemporary Educational Issues in Rural Schools  Resource-based Learning in the Context of Rural Schools Choose four of the following:  Curriculum Connections in Multi-grade/Multi-age Classrooms  Rural Schools and Community Relations  Rural Schools as Community Learning Centres  Curriculum Implementation in All-grade Rural Schools  Student Assessment in the Context of Rural Schools  General Classroom Music  Special Topics Courses in TeleLearning and Rural School Teaching
    43. 43. Teaching and Learning Online  Course Aims and Objectives o to critically examine present and proposed uses of the Internet/Web in teaching and learning o to collaboratively construct images of what effective online learning could be o for each class member, to increase understanding and skills related to the development, presentation, and delivery of online content and learning resources  Includes an alternate practicum to allow students to do some student teaching online
    44. 44.  Additional Qualification for Teaching & Learning Through e-Learning  Introduced in August 2009 o analyzing, interpreting and implementing Ministry of Education curriculum and district school board policies and guidelines particularly in the area of e-Learning o having and applying the theoretical understanding necessary to design, implement and assess e-Learning programs and practices o modeling and adapting expectations, strategies and assessment practices in response to the individual needs of students in the e-Learning environment o facilitating the creation of e-Learning environments conducive to the intellectual, social, emotional, physical, linguistic, cultural, spiritual and moral development of the student collaborating with in-school personnel, parents/guardians and the community o accessing and exploring a variety of resources, including technological resources, within and beyond the educational system to enhance professional knowledge in support of student e-Learning o refining professional practice through ongoing inquiry, dialogue and reflection o supporting and modeling ethical practices o understanding the need to respect and conserve resources in the environment o understanding how to create and sustain professional e-Learning communities o developing awareness of First Nations, Métis and Inuit (Aboriginal) ways of knowing and perspectives integrating environmentally respectful practices o creating and sustaining safe, equitable and inclusive learning environments that honor and respect diversity.
    45. 45.  Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario o http://etfo-aq.ca/catalogue/teaching-and-learning-through-e-learning/  Nipissing University o http://www.nipissingu.ca/academics/faculties/schulich-school-of- education/pd-for-teachers/courses--programs/Pages/AQ.aspx  Queen’s University o http://www.coursesforteachers.ca/OurCourses/1-sessionAQ/e- learning.html  University of Ontario Institute of Technology o http://education.uoit.ca/aq_abq_courses/course_offerings/e_learning/  York University o http://profdev.edu.yorku.ca/imis15_Prod/ProfDev/Profile/Courses/Core/Ev ents/eventdetails.aspx?TemplateType=A&iKey=LU12LTEZ
    46. 46.  Graduate Certificate in Online Learning Facilitation o Royal Roads University  Graduate Certificate in Online Teaching and Learning o Thompson River University  Graduate Diploma in Online Learning and Teaching o Vancouver Island University
    47. 47. http://www.teachertube.com/videoList.php?pg=uservideoli st&user_id=1790
    48. 48. Director of Doctoral Studies Sacred Heart University, USA mkbarbour@gmail.com http://www.michaelbarbour.com http://virtualschooling.wordpress.com

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