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FromOregon TrailtoPeacemakerProviding a Framework for Effective Integrationof Video Games into the Social StudiesClassroom...
We are assumingYou are possibly here because you are interested in:   • Integrating games into your social studies class  ...
Our presentation draws fromResearch and the literature on  • Integrating games into the classroom  • Integrating technolog...
In the next 30 minutes  You will learn the strategies successful social studies  teachers employ and how those same strate...
Agenda• Wineburg’s (2001) Levels of Historical Understanding• Methods for developing a mature historical  understanding• L...
Wineburg’s Levels of HistoricalUnderstanding• Level I as “just because” understanding• Level II superficial cause-effect u...
Developing a Mature HistoricalUnderstandingWineburg’s(2001) analysis of exceptional history  teachers, he detailed some in...
Linking Games to HistoricalUnderstandingMartin’s (1993) framework of history games  Re-run history games  • You re-play hi...
Linking Games to HistoricalUnderstandingMartin’s (1993) framework of history games   Counterfactual history games   • You ...
Linking Games to Historical UnderstandingLevel I as “just because” understandingEdutainment & Re-run:                     ...
Linking Games to Historical UnderstandingLevel III patterns or themes    Created representations . Deep Knowledge of Histo...
Linking Games to Historical Understanding    Ideal-type games & some Counter-factual games:Level IV original, unique      ...
Linking Games to HistoricalUnderstandingCombination of AllThe game genres (edutainment, role  playing, strategy, MMOG)+ Ma...
RecapitulationLevels of Historical Understanding  +Methods that facilitate a mature historical understanding      ~> Link ...
Implications& IdeasCreating games to teach mature historical understanding• Target game design to specific levels of histo...
Implications & IdeasStrategy&Counter factual games for Level III   • Need to correct inaccuracies – teachable moments   • ...
Implications & IdeasEvaluating games   • Use our framework to asses the educational potential       • What level is a titl...
Thank YouEnjoy integrating games into your classroom!Games are fun, motivating, and adored by many students.  We encourage...
FromOregon TrailtoPeacemakerProviding a Framework for Effective Integrationof Video Games into the Social StudiesClassroom...
SITE 2010 - From Oregon Trail to Peacemaker: Providing a Framework for Effective Integration of Video Games into the Socia...
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SITE 2010 - From Oregon Trail to Peacemaker: Providing a Framework for Effective Integration of Video Games into the Social Studies Classroom

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Charsky, D. & Barbour, M. K. (2010, March). From Oregon Trail to Peacemaker: Providing a framework for effective integration of video games into the social studies classroom. A paper presented at the annual conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, San Diego, CA.

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SITE 2010 - From Oregon Trail to Peacemaker: Providing a Framework for Effective Integration of Video Games into the Social Studies Classroom

  1. 1. FromOregon TrailtoPeacemakerProviding a Framework for Effective Integrationof Video Games into the Social StudiesClassroomDennis Charsky, PhD Michael Barbour, PhDRoy H. Park School of College of EducationCommunications Wayne State UniversityIthaca College mkbarbour@gmail.comdcharsky@ithaca.edu
  2. 2. We are assumingYou are possibly here because you are interested in: • Integrating games into your social studies class • Teaching perspective K12 teachers how to integrate games • Framework for creating history based games
  3. 3. Our presentation draws fromResearch and the literature on • Integrating games into the classroom • Integrating technology into the classroom • Historical understanding in students
  4. 4. In the next 30 minutes You will learn the strategies successful social studies teachers employ and how those same strategies can, or are, replicated in video games.But that is not all… You will also learn the types of games that help facilitate different levels of historical understanding as well as some ideas for integrating games.
  5. 5. Agenda• Wineburg’s (2001) Levels of Historical Understanding• Methods for developing a mature historical understanding• Linking Games to Historical Understanding• Implications and ideas
  6. 6. Wineburg’s Levels of HistoricalUnderstanding• Level I as “just because” understanding• Level II superficial cause-effect understanding• Level III patterns or themes that span time understanding• Level IV original, unique context understanding • As Wineburg (2001) states • “…learners are able to transcend the search for overall historical patterns, themes, theories, laws, etc. and come to understand history as a complex, ill- structured, context based, and context sensitive domain” (p. 42).
  7. 7. Developing a Mature HistoricalUnderstandingWineburg’s(2001) analysis of exceptional history teachers, he detailed some innovative teaching practices:• Created representations• Deep Knowledge of History• Use Outside Resources Wisely• Employ a Variety of Teaching Methods• Make Judgments about History
  8. 8. Linking Games to HistoricalUnderstandingMartin’s (1993) framework of history games Re-run history games • You re-play history exactly how it happened • Students compare their choices to the actual decisions • Students learn the exact chronology of events Ideal-type history games • You play a fictional story consistent withthe historical era • Students appreciate the historical era by learning to play the game according to the norms of that era.
  9. 9. Linking Games to HistoricalUnderstandingMartin’s (1993) framework of history games Counterfactual history games • You replay history by making choices that differ from actual history • Students must compare their fictional history to real history • Students learn that history is complex and influenced by people’s decisions Method history games • You play a game as a historian or archaeologist – detective games • Students contemplate “what if” questions and predict outcomes • The Mysteries of Catalhoyok and Egyptian Tomb Adventure
  10. 10. Linking Games to Historical UnderstandingLevel I as “just because” understandingEdutainment & Re-run: Typical classroom teaching methodsLevel II superficial cause-effect understanding and activities• Assist students in learning basic facts, concepts, and placing events along a timeline• Allow students to see the cause – effect relationships• Helps students memorize facts, concepts, and dates• Can help students do well on standardized examinationsExamples All most any edutainment title Where in the World is Carmen San Diego? Oregon Trail
  11. 11. Linking Games to Historical UnderstandingLevel III patterns or themes Created representations . Deep Knowledge of History . Use Strategy games & some Counter-factual. games: Outside resources Wisely Employ a Variety of Teachingthat span time understanding • Best for showcasing Methods . Make Judgments about History over overarching theories • Typically requires students to negotiate a variety of resources or driving forces in order to manage a historical event. • Students to learn about and apply different theories of history. Examples • A Force More Powerful • Civilization series • Age of Empires series • SimCity • Railroad Tycoon
  12. 12. Linking Games to Historical Understanding Ideal-type games & some Counter-factual games:Level IV original, unique Created representations . Deep Knowledge of History . Use • Provide experiences that facilitate understanding Variety of Teachingcontext understanding Outside Resources Wisely . Employ a the Methods . Make Judgments about History uniqueness of each historical situation as well as its context in history • Typically role-playing games (RPGs) and massive multi-player online games (MMOGs) o RPGs are best at delivering engaging narratives with tantalizing characters situated in authentic contexts o MMOGs allow collaboration and access to experts/teachers Examples • Revolution (MIT, 2005) • Elizabethan Court (Blow, 1990) • Peacemaker (Carnegie Melon, 2004) • Making History (Muzzy Lane, 2006)
  13. 13. Linking Games to HistoricalUnderstandingCombination of AllThe game genres (edutainment, role playing, strategy, MMOG)+ Martin’s (1993) framework (re-run, counter factual, ideal type)= Powerful framework for developing history games• How to combine the different games?• Would a single title integrate into the classroom structure?• Or, would it be better to develop shorter games for each level?
  14. 14. RecapitulationLevels of Historical Understanding +Methods that facilitate a mature historical understanding ~> Link games to the latter = Framework for history games Implications and ideas
  15. 15. Implications& IdeasCreating games to teach mature historical understanding• Target game design to specific levels of historical understanding• Better games that are fun AND facilitate learningEdutainment and Re-run for Levels I and II• Need to be coupled with high level instructional methods • Wineburg’s exceptional teachers’ methods• PowerPoint Games
  16. 16. Implications & IdeasStrategy&Counter factual games for Level III • Need to correct inaccuracies – teachable moments • PowerPoint RPG => Level IVIdeal type, Counter factual, MMOGs, &RPGs for Level IV • Charsky & Mims (2007) activities to integrate COTS • Learn the game • Crossover • Game as theory of the content area
  17. 17. Implications & IdeasEvaluating games • Use our framework to asses the educational potential • What level is a title best suited for? • Use the levels of historical understanding as a guide to supplement what levels the game doesn’t achievePerspective teachers • Guidance for integrating games and designing complimentary instructional activities
  18. 18. Thank YouEnjoy integrating games into your classroom!Games are fun, motivating, and adored by many students. We encourage you to employ our framework in assessing, selecting games and as a guide for designing complementary instructional activities.
  19. 19. FromOregon TrailtoPeacemakerProviding a Framework for Effective Integrationof Video Games into the Social StudiesClassroomDennis Charsky, PhD Michael Barbour, PhDRoy H. Park School of College of EducationCommunications Wayne State UniversityIthaca College mkbarbour@gmail.comdcharsky@ithaca.edu

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