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Michael	
  K.	
  Barbour	
  
Sacred	
  Heart	
  University	
  
Reverse	
  
Effects	
  
Developmental	
  
Effects	
  
Teacher	
  
Effects	
  
Zone	
  of	
  	
  
Desired	
  Effects	
  
Zone	
  of	
  	
  
Desired	
  Effects	
  
Reverse	
  
Effects	
  
Teacher	
  
Effects	
  
Developmental	
  
Effects	
  
1.  Self-­‐reported	
  grades	
  (d=1.44)	
  
2.  Piage8an	
  programs	
  (d=1.28)	
  
3.  Providing	
  forma8ve	
  evalua...
12.  Spaced	
  vs.	
  mass	
  prac8ce	
  (d=0.71)	
  
13.  Meta-­‐cogni8ve	
  strategies	
  (d=0.69)	
  
14.  Prior	
  ach...
23.  Coopera8ve	
  vs.	
  individualis8c	
  learning	
  
(d=0.59)	
  
24.  Study	
  skills	
  (d=0.59)	
  
25.  Direct	
  ...
Something	
  that	
  is	
  not	
  based	
  upon	
  reliable	
  
and	
  valid	
  research,	
  but	
  because	
  it	
  makes...
What	
  do	
  you	
  think	
  is	
  the	
  teacher's	
  worst	
  enemy?	
  
Some	
  would	
  say	
  lack	
  of	
  time.	
 ...
Riener	
  and	
  Willingham	
  (2010)	
  argue	
  this:	
  
	
  
"...learning-­‐styles	
  theory	
  has	
  succeeded	
  in...
Frank	
  Coffield	
  and	
  his	
  colleagues	
  (2004)	
  reported	
  that	
  
not	
  only	
  was	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
...
Director	
  of	
  Doctoral	
  Studies	
  
Sacred	
  Heart	
  University	
  
	
  
mkbarbour@gmail.com	
  
hYp://www.michael...
SHU Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute 2014 - Effective assessment strategies
SHU Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute 2014 - Effective assessment strategies
SHU Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute 2014 - Effective assessment strategies
SHU Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute 2014 - Effective assessment strategies
SHU Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute 2014 - Effective assessment strategies
SHU Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute 2014 - Effective assessment strategies
SHU Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute 2014 - Effective assessment strategies
SHU Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute 2014 - Effective assessment strategies
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SHU Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute 2014 - Effective assessment strategies

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Barbour, M. K. (2014, June). Effective assessment strategies. A presentation to the Sacred Heart University's Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute, Fairfield, CT.

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SHU Center of Digital Learning's Summer Institute 2014 - Effective assessment strategies

  1. 1. Michael  K.  Barbour   Sacred  Heart  University  
  2. 2. Reverse   Effects  
  3. 3. Developmental   Effects  
  4. 4. Teacher   Effects  
  5. 5. Zone  of     Desired  Effects  
  6. 6. Zone  of     Desired  Effects   Reverse   Effects   Teacher   Effects   Developmental   Effects  
  7. 7. 1.  Self-­‐reported  grades  (d=1.44)   2.  Piage8an  programs  (d=1.28)   3.  Providing  forma8ve  evalua8on  (d=0.90)   4.  Micro  teaching  (d=0.88)   5.  Accelera8on  (d=0.88)   6.  Classroom  behavioral  (d=0.80)   7.  Comprehensive  interven8ons  for   learning  disabled  students  (d=0.78)   8.  Teacher  clarity  (d=0.75)   9.  Reciprocal  teaching  (d=0.74)   10.  Providing  feedback  (d=0.73)   12.  Teacher-­‐student  rela8onships  (d=0.72)  
  8. 8. 12.  Spaced  vs.  mass  prac8ce  (d=0.71)   13.  Meta-­‐cogni8ve  strategies  (d=0.69)   14.  Prior  achievement  (d=0.67)   15.  Vocabulary  programs  (d=0.67)   16.  Repeated  Reading  programs  (d=0.67)   17.  Crea8vity  Programs  (d=0.65)   18.  Self-­‐verbaliza8on  &  self-­‐ques8oning   (d=0.64)   19.  Professional  development  (d=0.62)   20.  Problem  solving  teaching  (d=0.61)   21.  Not  labeling  students  (d=0.61)   22.  Teaching  strategies  (d=0.60)  
  9. 9. 23.  Coopera8ve  vs.  individualis8c  learning   (d=0.59)   24.  Study  skills  (d=0.59)   25.  Direct  instruc8on  (d=0.59)   26.  Tac8le  s8mula8on  programs  (d=0.58)   27.  Phonics  instruc8on  (d=0.58)   28.  Comprehension  programs  (d=0.58)   29.  Mastery  learning  (d=0.58)   30.  Worked  examples  (d=0.57)   31.  Home  environment  (d=0.57)   32.  Socioeconomic  status  (d=0.57)   33.  Concept  mapping  (d=0.57)  
  10. 10. Something  that  is  not  based  upon  reliable   and  valid  research,  but  because  it  makes   intuitive  sense  to  people  they  accept  it  as   being  true.     Something  that  is  not  based  upon  reliable   and  valid  research,  but  because  it  is   general  enough  people  are  able  to  apply  it   to  their  own  personal  context.  
  11. 11. What  do  you  think  is  the  teacher's  worst  enemy?   Some  would  say  lack  of  time.  Others  would  say   unsupportive  leadership,  or  the  dreaded   government  inspection.  Rigid  curriculum,  lack  of   resources  and  bad  student  behaviour  may  also  be   high  on  the  list  for  many  educators.  For  me,  the   worst  enemy  is  bad  theory.  Bad  theory,  when   accepted  without  challenge,  can  lead  to  bad   practice.  It's  insidious,  because  bad  theory  that  is   accepted  as  fact  without  a  full  understanding  of  its   implications,  results  in  bad  teaching,  and   ultimately,  learners  will  suffer.  
  12. 12. Riener  and  Willingham  (2010)  argue  this:     "...learning-­‐styles  theory  has  succeeded  in  becoming  “common   knowledge.”  Its  widespread  acceptance  serves  as  an   unfortunately  compelling  reason  to  believe  it.  This  is   accompanied  by  a  well-­‐known  cognitive  phenomenon  called   the  confirmation  bias.  When  evaluating  our  own  beliefs,  we   tend  to  seek  out  information  that  confirms  our  beliefs  and   ignore  contrary  information,  even  when  we  encounter  it   repeatedly.  When  we  see  someone  who  professes  to  be  a  visual   learner  excel  at  geography  and  an  auditory  learner  excel  at   music,  we  do  not  seek  out  the  information  which  would   disprove  our  interpretation  of  these  events  (can  the  auditory   learner  learn  geography  through  hearing  it?  Can  the  visual   learner  become  better  at  music  by  seeing  it?)"  
  13. 13. Frank  Coffield  and  his  colleagues  (2004)  reported  that   not  only  was  the  concept  of  learning  styles  so  ill   defined  as  to  be  virtually  useless  in  pedagogical  terms,   the  instruments  used  to  'determine'  student  learning   styles  were  flawed.  They  failed  to  measure  accurately   what  they  were  purported  to  measure  (validity   construct)  and  they  failed  to  measure  learning  styles   consistently  over  time  (reliability  construct).  Probably   the  only  reason  some  teachers  (and  many  training   organisations)  hang  on  to  the  idea  of  testing  learning   styles  is  that  it  is  convenient  to  do  so,  and  that  to   ditch  the  idea  altogether  would  leave  them  having  to   work  harder  with  students.  
  14. 14. Director  of  Doctoral  Studies   Sacred  Heart  University     mkbarbour@gmail.com   hYp://www.michaelbarbour.com   hYp://virtualschooling.wordpress.com  

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