See if can add Correspondence School figures for kids and adults OtagoNet planned in 2001 and evaluated by Lai & Pratt in 2004. Early lessons too teacher directed (going over self study for the week) but they developed with teachers’ confidence and expertise with the technology, needing TPCK. Derke Wenmoth has noted that some rural areas benefited from retaining these student at home rather thn having to send them awary to school – changes farming support and Cavanaugh (2001) conducted a meta-analysis of 19 studies reporting on the academic achievements of K-12 use of videoconferencing. She concluded that this mode of teaching and learning resulted in achievement that was “comparable to traditional instruction in most academic circumstances” (p. 84). The nine schools involved in this project all had fewer than the average number of students in New Zealand, with between 10 and 275 high school students at the time of the project’s inception. Supported initially by the Community Trust of Otago, Telecom New Zealand and the Ministry of Education, the OtagoNet has been implemented since 2001, and is continuing to function and expand both in the number of schools and its offerings. In the OtagoNet project, thirteen Year 11-13 (the final three years of secondary school) videoconferencing courses were taught by 14 teachers between 2002 and 2004, as shown by Table 1. A total of approximately 150 students attended these classes. The class sizes were small, ranging from 1 to 16. The majority of the classes involved two sites (including the home site) but a few linked up to four sites, the maximum number that the system could support. All the participating schools were provided with the essential hardware for videoconferencing, i.e., one television, one document camera, and one videoconferencing camera/microphone system, which were housed in a room provided and outfitted by the school. The videoconferencing network was connected as a VPN (virtual private network) via the Internet. Some schools also provided additional peripheral equipment, such as a video player. Many participating teachers took their own laptop computers to the room to use during the videoconference session. The videoconferencing system allowed teachers to control which site or combination of sites students could see on the TV screen, although the default setting was to show whoever was speaking. When the document camera was being used, or video or computer presentations were being shown, students in the remote sites would see this on the TV monitor, and would not be able to see their teacher or classmates at the other sites. Table 1: Details of the subjects offered in the initial year (2002), and the teachers and schools from which they were delivered TeacherSchoolSubjectYear level AAGraphicsY13BBEconomicsY13CCPhysicsY13DCMathematics with StatisticsY13ECHistoryY11FCHospitalityY11G/H1D/EMathematicsY12IFMathematics with CalculusY13JGPhysicsY12KHHistoryY11LIComputingY13MJPEY13NJElectronicsY121 teacher left partway through year, another teacher took over
http://www.karen.net.nz/music-mentoring/?category=1&start=5 http://www.merc.canterbury.ac.nz/newsfeatures.shtml#dist The National Centre for Research in Music Education and Sound Arts (University of Canterbury), in partnership with the Christchurch School of Music has recently completed a Ministry of Education funded e-mentoring music trial using video conferencing to offer remote music lessons to students. Image: Mark Walton (Christchurch School of Music Musical Director and Programme Director) giving saxophone lessons to University of Auckland student Peter Chiu. Student Example Name of student or school Greymouth HighDescription This clip shows a year 10 student preparing for the upcoming video conference flute lesson. She demonstrates the key competency of managing self, an important aspect of e-learning.Curriculum Level(s) Senior Primary, Intermediate, Junior Secondary, NCEA Level 1, NCEA Level 2, NCEA Level 3 and ScholarshipDiscipline(s) Music - Sound Arts http://arts.unitec.ac.nz/studentgallery/view_example.php?id=69 Junior secondary mixed ability violin lesson Lower video in student gallery shows more strategies: http://arts.unitec.ac.nz/studentgallery/view_example.php?id=71
Three C’s contribute to 21 st century skills development, per Partnership for 21 st Century Skills www.21stcenturyskills.org: Learning for the 21st Century – A report and Mile Guide for 21st Century Skills by Partnership for 21st Century Skills
Arts Online http://arts.unitec.ac.nz/studentgallery/examples.php?level=Junior+Secondary Student Example Description This clip shows a year 10 student preparing for the upcoming video conference flute lesson. She demonstrates the key competency of managing self, an important aspect of e-learning.Curriculum Level(s) Senior Primary, Intermediate, Junior Secondary, NCEA Level 1, NCEA Level 2, NCEA Level 3 and ScholarshipDiscipline(s) Music - Sound Arts http://arts.unitec.ac.nz/studentgallery/view_example.php?id=69 Junior secondary mixed ability violin lesson Lower video in student gallery shows more strategies: http://arts.unitec.ac.nz/studentgallery/view_example.php?id=71
Sabbatical (University of Canterbury) - Learning through ICT - Future Focus: Virtual Schooling
Learning through ICTFuture focus - Virtual Schooling Professor Niki Davis & Dr. Michael BarbourUniversity of Canterbury College of Education & Wayne State University, USA
Today’s Overview Why me, why now, why you? E-learning clusters of schools in New Zealand & Te Kura (TCS) Growth of Virtual Schooling in the USA An example of an online course in an Iowan high school The roles in e-learning Curriculum materials for you today 2 Learn forums and web links Final plenary
This Week’s Activities1. Post on your experience and pre-conceptions in Learn Forum 12. This PPT presentation by Professor Davis3. Dip into the resources linked in Learn and reflect4. Contribute to Learn discussion on virtual schooling in Learn Forum 2
Why me? Niki Davis, Professor of E-Learning1988-2000 University of Exeter Educational Telematics Centre, UK2000-2008 Iowa State University Center for Technology in Learning & Teaching, Iowa, USA2000-2006 Institute of Education, Professor of ICT (part time), UK2008-to stay! University of Canterbury, Director of e-Learning LabLeader of change to Incorporate e-learning in teacher education Support schools adapt to 21st century learning … and other educational organizations too!
Why me? Michael Barbour, Assistant Professor of Instructional Technology1999-2003 Centre for Advanced Placement Education (Canada) Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation (Canada)2001-2008 Illinois Virtual High School2003-2007 University of Georgia, Ph.D. Student (USA)2007- Wayne State UniversityResearch into the effective design, delivery and support primary and secondary online learning opportunities for students, particularly those in rural jurisdictions.
New Zealand e-Learning Cluster Map + Te Kura The Correspondence School nationwide(MoE, 2008) http://www.correspondence.schoo
VLN Primary Project Rachael Roberts, ePrincipal Primary students in Auroa in Manaia seek support from their mTeacherwhile learning Japanese from their eTeacher at Coastal Taranaki School, 7 Okato
In New ZealandVirtual Schooling is part of blended learning Key facts1. Nationwide The Correspondence School established 1922 • renamed Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu - The Correspondence School • blended learning from 2008 has >24,000 students & increasing2. 20 E-learning clusters of collaborating schools • Min. of Ed. Virtual Learning Network is their national hub • Involves e-Principals, e-Teachers, m-Teachers & other staff3. Personalised learning Regional Health Schools, e.g. SRHS Itinerant teachers, e.g. music Competitions, e.g. Global Challenge4. Some students may take courses from abroad E.g. international Virtual High School in the USA
VLN Video Conferencing (Joel Dodd teaching in TaraNet)
New Zealand video conference class20th century Virtual Schoolinge.g. Two Iowa high school classes connected via ICN 20th century approach to e- learning ? (Davis et al)
TEGIVS Scenario Max takes Math from Hospital for future teacher preparation http:www.public.iastate.edu/~vschool
Reflect on what this means for you as teacher in the future Will your future primary students include those who are: ill? gifted and/or talented / need to catch up? learn(ed) through Te Kura/TCS? Will your school get involved in blended learning? Will you supervise as an mTeacher? Will you be recruited for your e-skills as an eTeacher? Will you lead in future as a Principal / e-Principal? 15
Primary & Secondary OnlineLearning in the United States
Primary & Secondary OnlineLearning in Canada Single provincial programme Combination of provincial and district-based programmes Primarily district- based programmes Uses programmes from other provinces
VS teacher& DesignerGailWortmannExemplary Anatomy & Physiology course offered statewide blending: Online high quality structured content with activities & assessments Video-conference for office hours and some activities (see above) Quarterly labs in regional locations Iowa Public TV educational web designers & telecoms admin.
Rural access to higher level science courses M-teacher present for course necessities only Preparation for collegeAnatomy &Physiology:Regional labexample
Gen Bio – Access and Equity Checklists for student responsibility and M-teacher facilitation General Biology Credit Recovery Struggling learner Alternative school participation Year round availability
GenBio - Activities Real world scenarios associated with each unit. New information each lesson Digital images submitted as part of lab activity Authentic science in online courses
TEGIVS e.g. FAQ with Iowa Learning Online lead teacher /mentor
De-coupled Roles & ResponsibilitiesVSVS Teacher: Pedagogy & Class Management Presents activities, manages pacing, rigor etc. Interacts with students and their facilitators Undertakes assessments, grading etc.VS Site Facilitator: Mentoring & Advocating Local mentor and study coach Key liaison & advocate for student(s) Proctors & records grades etc.VS Designer: Course Development Designs instructional materials Design of online course etc. Distribution support?
Misperceptions?1. Any regular classroom teacher is already prepared to teach online &/or via videoconference? Yes2. Virtual teachers and regular school staff can handle students without leadership support, right? No3. Future teachers will be ready to teach online when they graduate?
Time to discuss Now join our discussion forum on 2. Who is involved in Virtual Schooling now and the future?Reflect on what this means for you as teacher in the future
Thank you Feedback welcome!• Thanks for participating • Michael Barbour, University of Canterbury, my colleagues, collaborating teachers and students • New Zealand teachers, schools and the Ministry of Education VLN • Support from U.S. Dept. of Education (FIPSE) and collaborators in the USA especially Iowa State University Center for Technology in Learning and Teaching: http://www.ctlt.iastate.edu • Feedback also welcome in our Learn discussion forum or Niki.Davis@canterbury.ac.nz
Miscellaneous additional slidesRelevant literature Barbour, M. (2011). Introducing In-Service Teachers to Virtual Schooling through the Lens of the Three Teacher Roles. In Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 (pp. 3425-3432). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/p/36851. Barbour, M. K. (2008). Secondary students’ perceptions of web based learning. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 9(4), 357-371. Barbour, M. K. (2010). Researching K-12 online learning: What do we know and what should we examine? Distance Learning, 7(2), 6-12. Bolstad, R. & Lin, M. (2009). Students’ experiences of learning in virtual classrooms. Wellington, New Zealand: NZCER. Retrieved September 15, 2010, from http://www.nzcer.org.nz/pdfs/students-experiences-learning-virtual- classrooms.pdf Davis, N.E. & Niederhauser, D. (2007). Learning & Leading. Parkes, S., Zaka, P. & Davis, N.E. (2011). The first blended or hybrid online course in a New Zealand Secondary School: A case study. Computers in New Zealand Schools, 13(1). Retrieved May 23, 2011 from http://education2x.otago.ac.nz/cinzs/mod/resource/view.php?id=149 Pullar, K. & Brennan C. (2008). Personalising learning for secondary students working in a blended (distance/face to face/vocational) learning environment. Computers in New Zealand Schools, 20(2), 6-16. Sahin, S. & Ham, V. (2010). Outcomes for teachers and students in the ICT PD school clusters programme 2006- 2008 – A national overview. Wellington: Learning Media.
Nested & Interlinked EcologiesTeachers’ ecology Each VS class ecosystem encompasses students and educators in multiple organizations; their ecosystems become tightly interrelated Decoupling of roles enables teachers to adapt behaviour to fit better within their collaborating schools, policies and communitiesSchools’ ecology E-learning schools’ courses/teachers ‘traded’ A school leader may this to adapt behaviour to ensure the fit of the school within current state and regional requirementsRegional ecozoneEquity has been supported in the USA by Federal legislation & funding VS Clearing House funded by AT&TRural equity pressures in New Zealand stimulate e-learning
Partnerships for Virtual Schooling:Among colleges"This whole thing started because youcouldnt find enough science teachersto teach all the classes we were tryingto offer. A valid option was onlinelearning to share one chemistryinstructor between seven colleges in aconsortium."Dr. Robert Klepper http://projects.educ.iastate. edu/~vhs/iowalakes.htm#wIowa Lakes Community College Chemistry hyInstructor
Partnerships for Virtual Schooling: With employers"This is a great way for studentswho are not university bound to startand continue in the realm of postsecondary education and still makea salary."Brad Scott: Director of CulinaryArts at Scott Community CollegeNB Not expanding rapidly http://projects.educ.iastate.edu/~vhs/bettendorf. htm