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Michael K. Barbour
Sacred Heart University
http://press.etc.cmu.edu/files/Handbook-Blended-
Learning_Ferdig-Kennedy-etal_web.pdf
“Mike, if you were explaining
what is happening in K-12
online and blended learning
outside of the United States
to someon...
• There are a lot of things
internationally that are the same as
what we see in the United States, and
• There are a lot o...
1. The evolution of K-12 distance education from
correspondence education to various media (e.g.,
radio, instructional tel...
 correspondence education – United States,
Canada, New Zealand
 educational radio – United States, Australia
 telematic...
 state and federal funding creating VHS,
FLVS, MVHS, IVHS, etc.
 federal funding to create Te Kura and VLN
(New Zealand)...
 full-time / supplemental
 province-wide / nation-wide
 levels of control (e.g., school board,
department of education,...
1. In many international jurisdictions there is still a significant
use of correspondence education, audio distance educati...
 Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu – The Correspondence
School was first established in 1922, there were 14,000
students that were ...
 proponents of online and blended learning tout its ability to
operate in a co-operation fashion with these competitive
b...
 VISCED Project was “a transnational appraisal of virtual
schools and colleges with a systematic review at
international ...
 iNACOL originally defined blended learning as:
...any time a student learns at least in part at a supervised brick-and-mo...
Director of Doctoral Studies
Sacred Heart University
mkbarbour@gmail.com
http://www.michaelbarbour.com
http://virtualschoo...
MVLRI 2015 - International Landscape of K-12 Online and Blended Learning
MVLRI 2015 - International Landscape of K-12 Online and Blended Learning
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MVLRI 2015 - International Landscape of K-12 Online and Blended Learning

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Barbour, M. K. (2015, June). International landscape of K-12 online and blended learning. A Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute webinar, Lansing, MI.

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MVLRI 2015 - International Landscape of K-12 Online and Blended Learning

  1. 1. Michael K. Barbour Sacred Heart University
  2. 2. http://press.etc.cmu.edu/files/Handbook-Blended- Learning_Ferdig-Kennedy-etal_web.pdf
  3. 3. “Mike, if you were explaining what is happening in K-12 online and blended learning outside of the United States to someone, what are the two or three or four things you’d want them to know?”
  4. 4. • There are a lot of things internationally that are the same as what we see in the United States, and • There are a lot of things internationally that are quite different than what we see in the United States!
  5. 5. 1. The evolution of K-12 distance education from correspondence education to various media (e.g., radio, instructional television, telematics, videoconferencing, etc.) to online. 2. Many of the early K-12 online learning programs were created through grants provided by the federal or individual state governments, which is consistent with the experience. 3. Terms such as supplemental and full-time, as well as district-based and state-wide (could be nation- wide or province-wide, depending on the jurisdiction) are all consistently used to describe K- 12 online and blended.
  6. 6.  correspondence education – United States, Canada, New Zealand  educational radio – United States, Australia  telematics – United States, Canada, Australia  video conferencing – United States, New Zealand
  7. 7.  state and federal funding creating VHS, FLVS, MVHS, IVHS, etc.  federal funding to create Te Kura and VLN (New Zealand), Open High School (Turkey), Cyber Home Learning System (South Korea), ScienceNet (Singapore), etc.
  8. 8.  full-time / supplemental  province-wide / nation-wide  levels of control (e.g., school board, department of education, etc.)
  9. 9. 1. In many international jurisdictions there is still a significant use of correspondence education, audio distance education, and video conferencing. 2. Internationally the primary driver of K-12 online and blended learning are government forces, and corporations are largely contractors that provide content, learning technologies, and other services to these government-run programs. There are few, if any, proponents of the application of free market principles to public education through K-12 online and blended learning. 3. In most countries K-12 online and blended learning is primarily used at the secondary level. Even the use of K-12 distance education in general is largely focused on the secondary grades. 4. As corporations and free market proponents are largely absent, blended learning – and even online learning – is generally regarded as the next evolution of effective technology integration.
  10. 10.  Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu – The Correspondence School was first established in 1922, there were 14,000 students that were enrolled in one or more courses through this correspondence education model  approximately two thirds of the students taking distance education courses in Nova Scotia and Ontario, and one third in Manitoba, were using correspondence education  there are fifteen School of the Air distance education programs that are still operating in Australia
  11. 11.  proponents of online and blended learning tout its ability to operate in a co-operation fashion with these competitive brick-and-mortar schools  in Canada the proliferation of K-12 distance education has not been due to advocates of free market principles, it has been due to the fact that online and blended learning offers opportunities for K-12 students that are not available in the brick-and-mortar environment  five additional jurisdictions (i.e., Mexico, Australia, Singapore, South Korea, and Turkey) where the primary driver of K-12 online and blended learning are national government forces, and corporations are largely contractors that provide content, learning technologies, and other services to these government-run programs
  12. 12.  VISCED Project was “a transnational appraisal of virtual schools and colleges with a systematic review at international and national levels of fully virtual schools and colleges” focused on students aged 14 to 21  New Zealand is comprised of approximately 20 geographic and thematic e-learning clusters, only one of which is a nation-wide cluster that focuses upon primary level students  in Canada the majority of K-12 distance education occurred at the secondary level, and the majority of distance education at the elementary level was delivered using correspondence education – almost exclusively on a full- time basis
  13. 13.  iNACOL originally defined blended learning as: ...any time a student learns at least in part at a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home and at least in part through online delivery with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace; often used synonymously with hybrid learning.  iNACOL described online learning as including: a range of web-based resources, media, tools, interactivity, and curricular or instructional approaches. Internationally, a variety of terms are used to describe online learning - including distance education, virtual schools, virtual learning, e-learning, electronic learning. In general, the common theme is that this type of learning takes place over the Internet.  New Zealand defines e-learning as “learning and teaching that is facilitated by or supported through the smart use of information and communication technologies”  in Finland, online and blended learning is described as a teaching method and content source as any other, and it had no special standing in evaluation, quality assurance, procurement, or otherwise
  14. 14. Director of Doctoral Studies Sacred Heart University mkbarbour@gmail.com http://www.michaelbarbour.com http://virtualschooling.wordpress.com

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