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Learning Styles and Student    Performance in an e-Learning EnvironmentPresented By:    Michael Barbour, University of Geo...
Background• Research was conducted with students  enrolled in Enterprise Education 3205  through the Centre for Distance L...
Purpose of Research• In the classroom, we are able to adapt our  instructional approach, our methods, even our  instructio...
Research Profile• Kolb and Baker Personal Learning  Guide• Standard learning styles measure  (visual, auditory, tactile)• ...
Personal Learning Guide•   Students rate sets of words on how well the words describe them.Discriminating Tentative       ...
Personal Learning Guide• The four totals are plotted on the chart below to  form a kite.
Personal Learning Guide•   Accommodative Learning Style - you learn primarily from hands-on experience.    You enjoy carry...
Personal Learning GuideNumber of   Accommodator   Diverger   Converger   AssimilatorstudentsHighest       52.8%        58....
Standard Measure• Students were given a statement and asked to give it a ratingI remember information better from lectures...
Standard MeasureVisual Learners - you have to see it to believe it• needs to see it to know it• strong sense of colour• ma...
Standard MeasureNumber          Visual         Auditory          TactileofstudentsHighest    69.2% (n=13)      54.7%(n=9) ...
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Students were given a statement and asked to state if it was true or  false. If the stat...
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences•   Interpersonal Intelligence - Telecommunications programs; programs which    address so...
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences•   Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence - Programs that combine stories with    songs; reading p...
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences          Inter-     Bodily-       Intra-     Logical-      Musical-   Verbal-      Visual...
Trends and Patterns• Students with the assimilative learning style tendto perform better than students from any of theothe...
Trends and Patterns• Students who are visual learners perform betterthan students who are tactile learners, who performbet...
Web-based Design               Pages   w/ Images   w/ Tables   w/ Interactivity   w/ Audio   w/ VideoHomepage        1Intr...
Considerations• When  teaching in an e-learning environment,instructors should provide more feedback tostudents, particula...
Considerations• Finally, instructors in an e-learning environmentshould consider allowing students to choose tocomplete mo...
Future Research• Continue present course of research withadditional students in future years.• Consider having students co...
ReferencesEdwards, Jack. "Multiple Intelligences and Technology." About Face10 3 (1995): 4 pages. 08 August 1999<http://ww...
Contact InformationMichael Barbour    mbarbour@coe.uga.eduPresentation available at:     http://www.ncf.ca/~an650
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IOC 2004 - Learning Styles and Student Performance in an E-Learning Environment

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Barbour, M. K. (2004, February). Learning styles and student performance in an e-learning environment. Paper presented at the annual Illinois Online Conference for Teaching and Learning, http://www.ilonlineconf.org/

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IOC 2004 - Learning Styles and Student Performance in an E-Learning Environment

  1. 1. Learning Styles and Student Performance in an e-Learning EnvironmentPresented By: Michael Barbour, University of Georgia
  2. 2. Background• Research was conducted with students enrolled in Enterprise Education 3205 through the Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation. (CDLI)• Students completed the prescribed curriculum solely through e-Learning.• 31 of the 44 students completed a learning styles inventory and agreed to the release of their marks.
  3. 3. Purpose of Research• In the classroom, we are able to adapt our instructional approach, our methods, even our instructional material.• This is much more challenging to accomplish in an e- learning environment.• Do e-learning environments, such as the one created by the CDLI, lend themselves to one learning style over another?• If they do, what can developers and moderators do to help learners achieve in the environment that they have created?
  4. 4. Research Profile• Kolb and Baker Personal Learning Guide• Standard learning styles measure (visual, auditory, tactile)• Gardner’s multiple intelligences
  5. 5. Personal Learning Guide• Students rate sets of words on how well the words describe them.Discriminating Tentative Involved Practical 4 Best characterizes 3 Next best 2 Next best 1 Least characterizes• Once the students have rated nine sets, they are asked to add their responses to certain sets together to give them four totals
  6. 6. Personal Learning Guide• The four totals are plotted on the chart below to form a kite.
  7. 7. Personal Learning Guide• Accommodative Learning Style - you learn primarily from hands-on experience. You enjoy carrying out plans and involving yourself in new and challenging experiences. Your tendency is to act on intuition and "gut feel" rather than careful analysis. When a thoughtful approach does not seem to work, you will quickly discard it and improvise.• Divergent Learning Style - you have the ability to view specific situations from many perspectives. You enjoy brainstorming and small group discussions. You like to gather information and have broad interests. You may watch events rather than participate.• Convergent Learning Style - you have the ability to find practical applications for ideas, concepts and theories. You enjoy situations with a single or best answer. You assume there is one answer and use technical analysis to reveal it. You prefer to deal with technical issues rather than people issues.• Assimilative Learning Style - you have the ability to create theoretical models. You enjoy inductive reasoning and distil disparate observations into logical explanations.[1] [1] David A. Kolb and Richard J. Baker, Personal Learning Guide: A practical guide to increasing your learning from a training program or workshop, (Baker & Company: Dallas, TX, 1979-80), pp. 11-17.
  8. 8. Personal Learning GuideNumber of Accommodator Diverger Converger AssimilatorstudentsHighest 52.8% 58.8% 69.8% 85.0%number (n=6) (n=15) (n=8) (n=3)Above 53.5% 57.8% 77.7% 85.0%40% (n=4) (n=10) (n=6) (n=3)Above 52.8% 60.6% 69.5% 65.5%30% (n=10) (n=18) (n=10) (n=6)
  9. 9. Standard Measure• Students were given a statement and asked to give it a ratingI remember information better from lectures with explanations and discussions.I chew gum or snack when I study. 3 Often 2 Sometimes 1 Seldom• After students had responded to 24 of these statements, they were asked to write the numbers they selected for each statement into three different columns and total each column.
  10. 10. Standard MeasureVisual Learners - you have to see it to believe it• needs to see it to know it• strong sense of colour• may have artistic abilityAuditory Learner - if you hear it, you remember it• prefers to get information by listening• needs to hear it to know itTactual Learner - if you can touch it with your hands, you will remember it• prefers hands-on learning• can assemble parts without reading directions• learns better when physical activity is involved• may be very well co-ordinated and have athletic ability [1] [1] Unknown, "Learning Lab - Learning Styles Evaluation," University of Northwestern Ohio (1998): 3 pages. 08 August 1999 <http://bsd-server.nc.edu/virtcol/ss/learn.html>.
  11. 11. Standard MeasureNumber Visual Auditory TactileofstudentsHighest 69.2% (n=13) 54.7%(n=9) 57.6% (n=13)numberAbove 20 71.3% (n=6) 45.0%(n=1) * 65.7% (n=6)Above 18 65.7% (n=15) 57.2%(n=9) 62.2% (n=16) * Only one respondent
  12. 12. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Students were given a statement and asked to state if it was true or false. If the statement was true sometimes and false sometimes, they were to leave it blank.2. If I am angry or happy, I usually know why.8. I pick up new dance steps quickly.• After students had responded to 35 of these statements, they were asked to write an X over the numbers that they had responded “T” to based on the following table: A 9 10 17 22 30 = B 5 7 15 20 25 = C 1 11 14 23 27 = D 8 16 19 21 29 = E 3 4 13 24 28 = F 2 6 26 31 33 = G 12 18 32 34 35 =
  13. 13. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Interpersonal Intelligence - Telecommunications programs; programs which address social issues; programs which include group presentation or decision making; games which require two or more players; TV production team approach• Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - Software requiring alternate input such as joystick, mouse, or touch window; keyboarding and word processing programs; animation programs; programs which allow them to move objects around the screen; science probeware• Intrapersonal Intelligence - Computer assisted instruction/ILS labs; instructional games in which the opponent is the computer; programs which encourage self- awareness or build self-improvement skills; any program which allow them to work independently; brainstorming or problem solving software• Logical/Mathematical Intelligence - Database and spreadsheet programs; problem solving software; computer programming software; strategy game formats/simulations; calculators; multimedia authoring programs
  14. 14. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence - Programs that combine stories with songs; reading programs which associate letter/sounds with music; programs which allow them to create their own song; constructing presentations using CD audio discs, videodisc player, and barcode program; sing along videodisc programs that display work "karaoke" style• Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence - Word processors that allow voice annotations; desktop publishing programs; programs with speech output; programs which encourage them to create poetry, essays, etc.; multimedia authoring; using videodiscs and barcode programs to create presentations; tape recorders; telecommunications/electronic networking• Visual/Spatial Intelligence - Draw and paint programs; reading programs that use visual clues such as rebus method or colour coding; programs which allow them to see information as maps, charts, or diagrams (i.e. charting capability of spreadsheet program; multimedia programs; science probeware[1] [1] Jack Edwards, "Multiple Intelligences and Technology," About Face 10 3 (1995): 4 pages. 08 August 1999 <http://www.firn.edu/~face/about/dec95/mult_int.html>.
  15. 15. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Inter- Bodily- Intra- Logical- Musical- Verbal- Visual- personal Kinesthetic personal Mathematics Rhythmic Linguistic SpatialHighest 70.8% 67.6% 92.0% 66.7% 53.3% 58.7% 65.7%Number (n=4) (n=9) (n=1)* (n=6) (n=9) (n=11) (n=15)Above 4 66.5% 64.7% 71.0% 63.7% 59.4% 55.7% 63.0% (n=12) (n=11) (n=2) (n=15) (n=14) (n=15) (n=18) * Only one respondent
  16. 16. Trends and Patterns• Students with the assimilative learning style tendto perform better than students from any of theother three learning styles.• Students with the convergent learning style tendto perform better than students from the divergentand accommodative learning styles.
  17. 17. Trends and Patterns• Students who are visual learners perform betterthan students who are tactile learners, who performbetter than auditory learners.• While there are few differences in studentperformance based upon Gardner’s multipleintelligences, students who have aptitudes for“Musical-Rhythmic” and “Verbal-Linguistic”appear to be lower than the other five intelligences.
  18. 18. Web-based Design Pages w/ Images w/ Tables w/ Interactivity w/ Audio w/ VideoHomepage 1Introduction 9 2 3Unit 1 76 9 2 7 4 (11)Unit 2 63 4 2 6 1 (2)Unit 3 80 17 3 1 (3)Unit 4 62 9 4 2 (7)Unit 5 72 16 6 4 6 (15)Unit 6 31 2 1 (3)Glossary 27Total 421 59 27 15 (41) # - number of pages with item (#) - number of total items
  19. 19. Considerations• When teaching in an e-learning environment,instructors should provide more feedback tostudents, particularly those with the accommodativelearning style.• Instructors should also provide additionalopportunities for students to interact in a verbal(e.g., audio or text-based) way.
  20. 20. Considerations• Finally, instructors in an e-learning environmentshould consider allowing students to choose tocomplete more of their work in groups.• In designing e-learning environments, developersshould make sure to include more audio items(noting that audio portions of video clips may not besuitable for auditory learners).
  21. 21. Future Research• Continue present course of research withadditional students in future years.• Consider having students complete the samecourse in different content shells that havelearning tools suited to one learning style overanother.
  22. 22. ReferencesEdwards, Jack. "Multiple Intelligences and Technology." About Face10 3 (1995): 4 pages. 08 August 1999<http://www.firn.edu/~face/about/dec95/mult_int.html>.Kolb, David A. and Baker, Richard J.. Personal Learning Guide: Apractical guide to increasing your learning from a training program orworkshop. Baker & Company: Dallas, TX, 1979-80.Unknown. "Learning Lab - Learning Styles Evaluation." Universityof Northwestern Ohio (1998): 3 pages. 08 August 1999 <http://bsd-server.nc.edu/virtcol/ss/learn.html>.
  23. 23. Contact InformationMichael Barbour mbarbour@coe.uga.eduPresentation available at: http://www.ncf.ca/~an650

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