Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Michael Barbour
Sacred Heart University
Full-Time Model
1. How does teaching in a distance or online

environment compare with teaching in a
traditional classroom environment?
2....
1. How does teaching in a distance or online

environment compare with teaching in a
traditional classroom environment?
2....
Virtual School Designer: Course Development
 design instructional materials
 works in team with teachers and a virtual s...
Virtual School Designer: Course Development
 design instructional materials
 works in team with teachers and a virtual s...
Similar to classroom-based teaching, with
differences
 time management, creation of materials,

understanding current tec...
Lack of reliable and valid
empirical research
 most research is based on teacher

perceptions
Study

Results

Methodological Limitation

Online
Teaching

37 Best practice for
effective asynchronous
online instruction...









general characteristics – 12 practices
classroom management strategies – 2 practices
pedagogical strategi...
Course developers should:
1. prior to beginning development of any of the web-based material,
plan out the course with ide...
 based on University of Florida’s

Virtual School Clearinghouse
initiative
 AT&T Foundation-funded project
from 2006-200...
 design-based research approach

to first five years of VHS
 SRI International were external

evaluators
 identified se...
Role of the parent
 full-time environment
 parent is responsible for significant instruction
 Programs need to consider...
Online teaching is more work
 CDLI class size limit (official & unofficial)
 asynchronous instruction in particular

Wha...
Lack of professional development
 less than 40% of online teachers reported to

receiving any professional development be...
Barbour, M. K. (2005). Perceptions of effective web-based design for secondary school students: A
narrative analysis of pr...
Elbaum, B., McIntyre, C., & Smith, A. (2002). Essential elements: Prepare, design, and teach your
online course. Madison, ...
Kozma, R., Zucker, A., & Espinoza, C. (1998). An evaluation of the Virtual High School after one
year in operation. Arling...
Director of Doctoral Studies
Sacred Heart University, USA

mkbarbour@gmail.com
http://www.michaelbarbour.com
http://virtua...
INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning
INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning
INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning
INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning
INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning

1,171 views

Published on

Barbour, M. K. (2014, February). Changing role of the teacher in K-12 online and blended learning. A webinar presentation to the south-eastern committee of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning

  1. 1. Michael Barbour Sacred Heart University
  2. 2. Full-Time Model
  3. 3. 1. How does teaching in a distance or online environment compare with teaching in a traditional classroom environment? 2. What is the relationship of teachers’ unions with K-12 online learning in Canada, the United States and other countries within the context of each jurisdiction?
  4. 4. 1. How does teaching in a distance or online environment compare with teaching in a traditional classroom environment? 2. What is the relationship of teachers’ unions with K-12 online learning in Canada, the United States and other countries within the context of each jurisdiction?
  5. 5. Virtual School Designer: Course Development  design instructional materials  works in team with teachers and a virtual school to construct the online course, etc. Virtual School Teacher: Pedagogy & Class Management  presents activities, manages pacing, rigor, etc.  interacts with students and their facilitators  undertakes assessment, grading, etc. Virtual School Site Facilitator: Mentoring & Advocating  local mentor and advocate for student(s)  proctors & records grades, etc. Davis (2007)
  6. 6. Virtual School Designer: Course Development  design instructional materials  works in team with teachers and a virtual school to construct the online course, etc. Virtual School Teacher: Pedagogy & Class Management  presents activities, manages pacing, rigor, etc.  interacts with students and their facilitators  undertakes assessment, grading, etc. Virtual School Site Facilitator: Mentoring & Advocating  local mentor and advocate for student(s)  proctors & records grades, etc. Davis (2007)
  7. 7. Similar to classroom-based teaching, with differences  time management, creation of materials, understanding current technology and working with a student one-on-one (Kearsley & Blomeyer, 2004)  work differently to have positive communication and assessments, using non-verbal communication, time is needed for teachers to become comfortable with technology, shift occurring from teacher-centered to studentcentered learning (Easton, 2003)
  8. 8. Lack of reliable and valid empirical research  most research is based on teacher perceptions
  9. 9. Study Results Methodological Limitation Online Teaching 37 Best practice for effective asynchronous online instruction Interviews with teachers at a single, statewide virtual school that were selected by virtual school administrators. Online teacher beliefs were not validated through observation or student performance. 7 Principles of effective asynchronous course design for adolescent learners Interviews with teachers and course developers at a single province-wide virtual school that had a strong synchronous delivery model. Beliefs were not validated through observation or student performance DiPietro et al. (2008) Online Course Design Barbour (2005, 2007)
  10. 10.         general characteristics – 12 practices classroom management strategies – 2 practices pedagogical strategies: assessment – 3 practices pedagogical strategies: engaging students with content – 7 practices pedagogical strategies: making course meaningful for students – 4 practices pedagogical strategies: providing support– 1 practice pedagogical strategies: communication & community – 5 practices technology – 3 practices
  11. 11. Course developers should: 1. prior to beginning development of any of the web-based material, plan out the course with ideas for the individual lessons and specific items that they would like to include; 2. keep the navigation simple and to a minimum, but don’t present the material the same way in every lesson; 3. provide a summary of the content from the required readings or the synchronous lesson and include examples that are personalized to the students’ own context; 4. ensure students are given clear instructions and model expectations of the style and level that will be required for student work; 5. refrain from using too much text and consider the use of visuals to replace or supplement text when applicable; 6. only use multimedia that will enhances the content and not simply because it is available; and 7. develop their content for the average or below average student.
  12. 12.  based on University of Florida’s Virtual School Clearinghouse initiative  AT&T Foundation-funded project from 2006-2009  designed to provide K-12 online learning programs, particularly statewide supplemental programs, with data analysis tools and metrics for school improvement  13 of those K-12 online programs were outlined in a publication entitled Lessons Learned for Virtual Schools: Experiences and Recommendations from the Field Black, Ferdig, DiPietro (2008)
  13. 13.  design-based research approach to first five years of VHS  SRI International were external evaluators  identified seven goals and focused all of their research and evaluation  resulted in:  three annual evaluations  one five-year evaluation  two subject specific evaluations
  14. 14. Role of the parent  full-time environment  parent is responsible for significant instruction  Programs need to consider how to measure (Liu, Black, Algina, Cavanaugh, & Dawson, 2010) and foster it (Borup, Graham, & Davies, 2013; Halser Waters, 2012; Klein, 2006)  overall findings  parental involvement tends to decrease as student performance increases (Borup, Graham, & Davies, 2013)
  15. 15. Online teaching is more work  CDLI class size limit (official & unofficial)  asynchronous instruction in particular What is known about teacher training  learn online in order to teach online  works in team with teachers and a virtual school to construct the online course, etc.
  16. 16. Lack of professional development  less than 40% of online teachers reported to receiving any professional development before they began teaching online (Rice & Dawley, 2007) Lack of teacher preparation programs  less than 2% of universities in the United States provided any systematic training in their preservice or in-service teacher education programs (Kennedy & Archambault, 2012)
  17. 17. Barbour, M. K. (2005). Perceptions of effective web-based design for secondary school students: A narrative analysis of previously collected data. The Morning Watch, 32(3-4). Retrieved from http://www.mun.ca/educ/faculty/mwatch/win05/Barbour.htm Barbour, M. K. (2007). Principles of effective web-based content for secondary school students: Teacher and developer perceptions. Journal of Distance Education, 21(3), 93-114. Black, E. W., Ferdig, R. E., DiPietro, M. (2008). An overview of evaluative instrumentation for virtual high schools. American Journal of Distance Education, 22(1), 24-45. Borup, J., Graham, C. R., & Davies, R. S. (2013). The nature of parental interactions in an online charter school. American Journal of Distance Education, 27(1), 40-55. Davis, N. E. (2007, February). Teacher Education Goes into Virtual Schooling. Paper presented at the FIPSE Comprehensive Conference. Retrieved from http://ctlt.iastate.edu/~tegivs/TEGIVS/publications/VS%20Symposium2007.pdf DiPetro, M., Ferdig, R. E., Black, E. W., & Preston, M. (2008). Best practices in teaching K-12 online: Lessons learned from Michigan Virtual School teachers. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 7(1). Retrieved from http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/pdf/7.1.2.pdf Easton, S. (2003). Clarifying the instructor’s role in online distance learning. Communication Education, 52(2), 87–105.
  18. 18. Elbaum, B., McIntyre, C., & Smith, A. (2002). Essential elements: Prepare, design, and teach your online course. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing. Espinoza, C., Dove, T., Zucker, A., & Kozma, R. (1999). An evaluation of the Virtual High School after two years in operation. Arlington, VA: SRI International. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20080626110701/http://ctl.sri.com/publications/downloads/evalvh s2yrs.pdf Ferdig, R. E. & Cavanaugh, C. (Eds.). (2008). Lessons learned for virtual schools: Experiences and recommendations from the field. Vienna, VA: International Association for K-12 Online Learning. Halser Waters, L. (2012). Exploring the experience of learning choices in a cyber charter schools: A qualitative case study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, Mānoa, HI. Kearsley, G., & Blomeyer, R. (2004), Preparing K-12 teachers to teach online. Educational Technology, 44(1), pp. 49-52. Retrieved from http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/TeachingOnline.htm Kennedy, K., & Archambault, L. M. (2012). Offering pre-service teachers field experiences in K-12 online learning: A national survey of teacher education programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(3), 185–200. Klein, C. (2006). Virtual charter schools and home schooling. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press.
  19. 19. Kozma, R., Zucker, A., & Espinoza, C. (1998). An evaluation of the Virtual High School after one year in operation. Arlington, VA: SRI International. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20080626110702/http://ctl.sri.com/publications/downloads/evalv hs1yr.pdf Kozma, R., Zucker, A., Espinoza, C., McGhee, R., Yarnall, L., Zalles, D., et al. (2000). The online course experience: Evaluation of the Virtual High School's third year of implementation, 19992000. Arlington, VA: SRI International. Retrieved from http://www.sri.com/sites/default/files/publications/imports/VHS_Online_Experience.pdf Lui, F., Black, E., Algina, J., Cavanaugh, C., & Dawson, K. (2010). The validation of one parental involvement measurement in virtual schooling. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(2). Retrieved from http://www.ncolr.org/issues/jiol/v9/n2/the-validation-of-one-parentalinvolvement-measurement-in-virtual-schooling Rice, K., & Dawley, L. (2007). Going Virtual: The status of professional development of K-12 online teachers. Boise ID: Boise State University. Retrieved from http://edtech.boisestate.edu/goingvirtual/goingvirtual1.pdf Yamashiro, K., & Zucker, A. (1999). An expert panel review of the quality of Virtual High School courses: Final report. Arlington, VA: SRI International. Retrieved from http://thevhscollaborative.org/sites/default/files/public/vhsexprt.pdf Zucker, A., & Kozma, R. (2003). The Virtual High School: Teaching generation V. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
  20. 20. Director of Doctoral Studies Sacred Heart University, USA mkbarbour@gmail.com http://www.michaelbarbour.com http://virtualschooling.wordpress.com

×