Michael Barbour
Sacred Heart University
Full-Time Model
1. How does teaching in a distance or online

environment compare with teaching in a
traditional classroom environment?
2....
1. How does teaching in a distance or online

environment compare with teaching in a
traditional classroom environment?
2....
Virtual School Designer: Course Development
 design instructional materials
 works in team with teachers and a virtual s...
Virtual School Designer: Course Development
 design instructional materials
 works in team with teachers and a virtual s...
Similar to classroom-based teaching, with
differences
 time management, creation of materials,

understanding current tec...
Lack of reliable and valid
empirical research
 most research is based on teacher

perceptions
Study

Results

Methodological Limitation

Online
Teaching

37 Best practice for
effective asynchronous
online instruction...









general characteristics – 12 practices
classroom management strategies – 2 practices
pedagogical strategi...
Course developers should:
1. prior to beginning development of any of the web-based material,
plan out the course with ide...
 based on University of Florida’s

Virtual School Clearinghouse
initiative
 AT&T Foundation-funded project
from 2006-200...
 design-based research approach

to first five years of VHS
 SRI International were external

evaluators
 identified se...
Role of the parent
 full-time environment
 parent is responsible for significant instruction
 Programs need to consider...
Online teaching is more work
 CDLI class size limit (official & unofficial)
 asynchronous instruction in particular

Wha...
Lack of professional development
 less than 40% of online teachers reported to

receiving any professional development be...
Barbour, M. K. (2005). Perceptions of effective web-based design for secondary school students: A
narrative analysis of pr...
Elbaum, B., McIntyre, C., & Smith, A. (2002). Essential elements: Prepare, design, and teach your
online course. Madison, ...
Kozma, R., Zucker, A., & Espinoza, C. (1998). An evaluation of the Virtual High School after one
year in operation. Arling...
Director of Doctoral Studies
Sacred Heart University, USA

mkbarbour@gmail.com
http://www.michaelbarbour.com
http://virtua...
INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning
INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning
INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning
INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning
INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning
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INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning

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Barbour, M. K. (2014, February). Changing role of the teacher in K-12 online and blended learning. A webinar presentation to the south-eastern committee of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning.

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INACOL Southeast Cmte (2014) - Changing Role of the Teacher in K-12 Online and Blended Learning

  1. 1. Michael Barbour Sacred Heart University
  2. 2. Full-Time Model
  3. 3. 1. How does teaching in a distance or online environment compare with teaching in a traditional classroom environment? 2. What is the relationship of teachers’ unions with K-12 online learning in Canada, the United States and other countries within the context of each jurisdiction?
  4. 4. 1. How does teaching in a distance or online environment compare with teaching in a traditional classroom environment? 2. What is the relationship of teachers’ unions with K-12 online learning in Canada, the United States and other countries within the context of each jurisdiction?
  5. 5. Virtual School Designer: Course Development  design instructional materials  works in team with teachers and a virtual school to construct the online course, etc. Virtual School Teacher: Pedagogy & Class Management  presents activities, manages pacing, rigor, etc.  interacts with students and their facilitators  undertakes assessment, grading, etc. Virtual School Site Facilitator: Mentoring & Advocating  local mentor and advocate for student(s)  proctors & records grades, etc. Davis (2007)
  6. 6. Virtual School Designer: Course Development  design instructional materials  works in team with teachers and a virtual school to construct the online course, etc. Virtual School Teacher: Pedagogy & Class Management  presents activities, manages pacing, rigor, etc.  interacts with students and their facilitators  undertakes assessment, grading, etc. Virtual School Site Facilitator: Mentoring & Advocating  local mentor and advocate for student(s)  proctors & records grades, etc. Davis (2007)
  7. 7. Similar to classroom-based teaching, with differences  time management, creation of materials, understanding current technology and working with a student one-on-one (Kearsley & Blomeyer, 2004)  work differently to have positive communication and assessments, using non-verbal communication, time is needed for teachers to become comfortable with technology, shift occurring from teacher-centered to studentcentered learning (Easton, 2003)
  8. 8. Lack of reliable and valid empirical research  most research is based on teacher perceptions
  9. 9. Study Results Methodological Limitation Online Teaching 37 Best practice for effective asynchronous online instruction Interviews with teachers at a single, statewide virtual school that were selected by virtual school administrators. Online teacher beliefs were not validated through observation or student performance. 7 Principles of effective asynchronous course design for adolescent learners Interviews with teachers and course developers at a single province-wide virtual school that had a strong synchronous delivery model. Beliefs were not validated through observation or student performance DiPietro et al. (2008) Online Course Design Barbour (2005, 2007)
  10. 10.         general characteristics – 12 practices classroom management strategies – 2 practices pedagogical strategies: assessment – 3 practices pedagogical strategies: engaging students with content – 7 practices pedagogical strategies: making course meaningful for students – 4 practices pedagogical strategies: providing support– 1 practice pedagogical strategies: communication & community – 5 practices technology – 3 practices
  11. 11. Course developers should: 1. prior to beginning development of any of the web-based material, plan out the course with ideas for the individual lessons and specific items that they would like to include; 2. keep the navigation simple and to a minimum, but don’t present the material the same way in every lesson; 3. provide a summary of the content from the required readings or the synchronous lesson and include examples that are personalized to the students’ own context; 4. ensure students are given clear instructions and model expectations of the style and level that will be required for student work; 5. refrain from using too much text and consider the use of visuals to replace or supplement text when applicable; 6. only use multimedia that will enhances the content and not simply because it is available; and 7. develop their content for the average or below average student.
  12. 12.  based on University of Florida’s Virtual School Clearinghouse initiative  AT&T Foundation-funded project from 2006-2009  designed to provide K-12 online learning programs, particularly statewide supplemental programs, with data analysis tools and metrics for school improvement  13 of those K-12 online programs were outlined in a publication entitled Lessons Learned for Virtual Schools: Experiences and Recommendations from the Field Black, Ferdig, DiPietro (2008)
  13. 13.  design-based research approach to first five years of VHS  SRI International were external evaluators  identified seven goals and focused all of their research and evaluation  resulted in:  three annual evaluations  one five-year evaluation  two subject specific evaluations
  14. 14. Role of the parent  full-time environment  parent is responsible for significant instruction  Programs need to consider how to measure (Liu, Black, Algina, Cavanaugh, & Dawson, 2010) and foster it (Borup, Graham, & Davies, 2013; Halser Waters, 2012; Klein, 2006)  overall findings  parental involvement tends to decrease as student performance increases (Borup, Graham, & Davies, 2013)
  15. 15. Online teaching is more work  CDLI class size limit (official & unofficial)  asynchronous instruction in particular What is known about teacher training  learn online in order to teach online  works in team with teachers and a virtual school to construct the online course, etc.
  16. 16. Lack of professional development  less than 40% of online teachers reported to receiving any professional development before they began teaching online (Rice & Dawley, 2007) Lack of teacher preparation programs  less than 2% of universities in the United States provided any systematic training in their preservice or in-service teacher education programs (Kennedy & Archambault, 2012)
  17. 17. Barbour, M. K. (2005). Perceptions of effective web-based design for secondary school students: A narrative analysis of previously collected data. The Morning Watch, 32(3-4). Retrieved from http://www.mun.ca/educ/faculty/mwatch/win05/Barbour.htm Barbour, M. K. (2007). Principles of effective web-based content for secondary school students: Teacher and developer perceptions. Journal of Distance Education, 21(3), 93-114. Black, E. W., Ferdig, R. E., DiPietro, M. (2008). An overview of evaluative instrumentation for virtual high schools. American Journal of Distance Education, 22(1), 24-45. Borup, J., Graham, C. R., & Davies, R. S. (2013). The nature of parental interactions in an online charter school. American Journal of Distance Education, 27(1), 40-55. Davis, N. E. (2007, February). Teacher Education Goes into Virtual Schooling. Paper presented at the FIPSE Comprehensive Conference. Retrieved from http://ctlt.iastate.edu/~tegivs/TEGIVS/publications/VS%20Symposium2007.pdf DiPetro, M., Ferdig, R. E., Black, E. W., & Preston, M. (2008). Best practices in teaching K-12 online: Lessons learned from Michigan Virtual School teachers. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 7(1). Retrieved from http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/pdf/7.1.2.pdf Easton, S. (2003). Clarifying the instructor’s role in online distance learning. Communication Education, 52(2), 87–105.
  18. 18. Elbaum, B., McIntyre, C., & Smith, A. (2002). Essential elements: Prepare, design, and teach your online course. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing. Espinoza, C., Dove, T., Zucker, A., & Kozma, R. (1999). An evaluation of the Virtual High School after two years in operation. Arlington, VA: SRI International. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20080626110701/http://ctl.sri.com/publications/downloads/evalvh s2yrs.pdf Ferdig, R. E. & Cavanaugh, C. (Eds.). (2008). Lessons learned for virtual schools: Experiences and recommendations from the field. Vienna, VA: International Association for K-12 Online Learning. Halser Waters, L. (2012). Exploring the experience of learning choices in a cyber charter schools: A qualitative case study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, Mānoa, HI. Kearsley, G., & Blomeyer, R. (2004), Preparing K-12 teachers to teach online. Educational Technology, 44(1), pp. 49-52. Retrieved from http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/TeachingOnline.htm Kennedy, K., & Archambault, L. M. (2012). Offering pre-service teachers field experiences in K-12 online learning: A national survey of teacher education programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(3), 185–200. Klein, C. (2006). Virtual charter schools and home schooling. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press.
  19. 19. Kozma, R., Zucker, A., & Espinoza, C. (1998). An evaluation of the Virtual High School after one year in operation. Arlington, VA: SRI International. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20080626110702/http://ctl.sri.com/publications/downloads/evalv hs1yr.pdf Kozma, R., Zucker, A., Espinoza, C., McGhee, R., Yarnall, L., Zalles, D., et al. (2000). The online course experience: Evaluation of the Virtual High School's third year of implementation, 19992000. Arlington, VA: SRI International. Retrieved from http://www.sri.com/sites/default/files/publications/imports/VHS_Online_Experience.pdf Lui, F., Black, E., Algina, J., Cavanaugh, C., & Dawson, K. (2010). The validation of one parental involvement measurement in virtual schooling. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(2). Retrieved from http://www.ncolr.org/issues/jiol/v9/n2/the-validation-of-one-parentalinvolvement-measurement-in-virtual-schooling Rice, K., & Dawley, L. (2007). Going Virtual: The status of professional development of K-12 online teachers. Boise ID: Boise State University. Retrieved from http://edtech.boisestate.edu/goingvirtual/goingvirtual1.pdf Yamashiro, K., & Zucker, A. (1999). An expert panel review of the quality of Virtual High School courses: Final report. Arlington, VA: SRI International. Retrieved from http://thevhscollaborative.org/sites/default/files/public/vhsexprt.pdf Zucker, A., & Kozma, R. (2003). The Virtual High School: Teaching generation V. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
  20. 20. Director of Doctoral Studies Sacred Heart University, USA mkbarbour@gmail.com http://www.michaelbarbour.com http://virtualschooling.wordpress.com

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