Examining course enrolmentdata: Are rural students taking basic level courses to avoid     taking them on‐line?Michael K. ...
Student Performance• performance of virtual  and classroom students in  Alberta were similar in  English and Social Studie...
Student Performance• over half of the students who  completed FLVS courses scored  an A in their course and only 7%  recei...
Student Performance• FLVS students performed better  on a non-mandatory assessment  tool than students from the  tradition...
Meta-Analysis• Cavanaugh (2001)  – +0.147 in favor of K-12 distance education• Cavanaugh et al. (2004)  – -0.028 for K-12 ...
Examining Meta-analyses                          6
Examining Meta-analyses                 Teacher                 Effects    Zone of                            Desired Effe...
Let’s look a little closer...
The Students• the vast majority of VHS Global  Consortium students in their courses  were planning to attend a four-year  ...
The StudentsThe preferred characteristicsinclude the highly motivated,self-directed, self-disciplined,independent learner ...
Students and Student PerformanceBallas & Belyk, performance of virtual and      participation rate in the2000            c...
The Students• “only students with a high need  to control and structure their  own learning may choose  distance formats f...
The Students• the typical online student was  an A or B student (Mills, 2003)• 45% of the students who  participated in e-...
Students and Student PerformanceCavanaugh et FLVS students performed          speculated that the virtualal., 2005    bett...
Is this consistent with K-12 distanceeducation in Newfoundland and Labrador?
Barbour & Mulcahy – Rural Educator (2006)
Barbour & Mulcahy – Ed in Rural Australia (2008)
Barbour & Mulcahy – ERS Spectrum              (2009)
Student Performance and StudentsBut are we really comparingapples to apples?
Mulcahy, Dibbon and Norberg (2008)• study of rural schooling in three schools on the  south coast of the Labrador• found t...
Academic tracks in        Newfoundland & Labrador• English language arts• mathematics• academic stream - graduation,  coll...
Enrollment - English Language Arts
Enrollment - Mathematics
EDGE 2010 - Examining Course Enrolment Data: Are Rural Students Taking Basic Level Courses to Avoid Taking Them On-line?
EDGE 2010 - Examining Course Enrolment Data: Are Rural Students Taking Basic Level Courses to Avoid Taking Them On-line?
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EDGE 2010 - Examining Course Enrolment Data: Are Rural Students Taking Basic Level Courses to Avoid Taking Them On-line?

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Barbour, M. K., & Mulcahy, D. (2010, October). Examining course enrolment data: Are rural students taking basic level courses to avoid taking them on-line? A paper presentation at EDGE 2010: e-Learning – The Horizon And Beyond…, St. John’s, NL.

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  • Another problem is what we measure...
  • EDGE 2010 - Examining Course Enrolment Data: Are Rural Students Taking Basic Level Courses to Avoid Taking Them On-line?

    1. 1. Examining course enrolmentdata: Are rural students taking basic level courses to avoid taking them on‐line?Michael K. Barbour Dennis Mulcahy Assistant Professor ProfessorWayne State University Memorial University of Newfoundland
    2. 2. Student Performance• performance of virtual and classroom students in Alberta were similar in English and Social Studies courses, but that classroom students performed better overall in all other subject areas (Ballas & Belyk, 2000)
    3. 3. Student Performance• over half of the students who completed FLVS courses scored an A in their course and only 7% received a failing grade (Bigbie & McCarroll, 2000)• students in the six virtual schools in three different provinces performed no worse than the students from the three conventional schools (Barker & Wendel, 2001)
    4. 4. Student Performance• FLVS students performed better on a non-mandatory assessment tool than students from the traditional classroom (Cavanaugh et al., 2005)• FLVS students performed better on an assessment of algebraic understanding than their classroom counterparts (McLeod et al., 2005)
    5. 5. Meta-Analysis• Cavanaugh (2001) – +0.147 in favor of K-12 distance education• Cavanaugh et al. (2004) – -0.028 for K-12 distance education• Means et al. (2009) – +0.14 favoring online over face-to-face
    6. 6. Examining Meta-analyses 6
    7. 7. Examining Meta-analyses Teacher Effects Zone of Desired Effects Developmental EffectsReverseEffects 7
    8. 8. Let’s look a little closer...
    9. 9. The Students• the vast majority of VHS Global Consortium students in their courses were planning to attend a four-year college (Kozma, Zucker & Espinoza, 1998)• “VHS courses are predominantly designated as ‘honors,’ and students enrolled are mostly college bound” (Espinoza et al., 1999)
    10. 10. The StudentsThe preferred characteristicsinclude the highly motivated,self-directed, self-disciplined,independent learner who couldread and write well, and whoalso had a strong interest in orability with technology(Haughey & Muirhead, 1999)
    11. 11. Students and Student PerformanceBallas & Belyk, performance of virtual and participation rate in the2000 classroom students similar in assessment among virtual English & Social Studies students ranged from 65% to courses, but classroom 75% compared to 90% to 96% students performed better in for the classroom-based all other subject areas studentsBigbie & over half of the students who between 25% and 50% ofMcCarroll, completed FLVS courses students had dropped out of2000 scored an A in their course their FLVS courses over the and only 7% received a failing previous two-year period grade
    12. 12. The Students• “only students with a high need to control and structure their own learning may choose distance formats freely” (Roblyer & Elbaum, 2000)• IVHS students were “highly motivated, high achieving, self- directed and/or who liked to work independently” (Clark et al., 2002)
    13. 13. The Students• the typical online student was an A or B student (Mills, 2003)• 45% of the students who participated in e-learning opportunities in Michigan were “either advanced placement or academically advanced” students (Watkins, 2005)
    14. 14. Students and Student PerformanceCavanaugh et FLVS students performed speculated that the virtualal., 2005 better on a non-mandatory school students who did take assessment tool than the assessment may have been students from the traditional more academically motivated classroom and naturally higher achieving studentsMcLeod et al., FLVS students performed results of the student2005 better on an assessment of performance were due to the algebraic understanding than high dropout rate in virtual their classroom counterparts school courses
    15. 15. Is this consistent with K-12 distanceeducation in Newfoundland and Labrador?
    16. 16. Barbour & Mulcahy – Rural Educator (2006)
    17. 17. Barbour & Mulcahy – Ed in Rural Australia (2008)
    18. 18. Barbour & Mulcahy – ERS Spectrum (2009)
    19. 19. Student Performance and StudentsBut are we really comparingapples to apples?
    20. 20. Mulcahy, Dibbon and Norberg (2008)• study of rural schooling in three schools on the south coast of the Labrador• found two had a higher percentage of students enrolled in basic-level courses• speculated because the only way students could do academic course at their school was online, some students specifically chose the basic stream to avoid taking an online course Students who enroll in the basic stream are not eligible for post-secondary admittance!
    21. 21. Academic tracks in Newfoundland & Labrador• English language arts• mathematics• academic stream - graduation, college, university, etc.• basic stream - graduation, trade school• virtual school program only offers academic streamed courses
    22. 22. Enrollment - English Language Arts
    23. 23. Enrollment - Mathematics

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