DLAC 2020 - The Union Experience: Examining Contract Language Related to E-Learning in Canada

Michael Barbour
Michael BarbourProfessor of Instructional Design, College of Education & Health Services
Executive Summary
“Teacher unions in Canada have had concerns about developments
in online learning, but have generally been supportive if they have
felt conditions were appropriate,” according to the Director of
Research and Technology at the British Columbia Teachers’
Federation (BCTF). This sentiment has been echoed by the
researchers involved in the annual State of the Nation: K-12 E-
Learning in Canada. These researchers have also underscored the
fact that teacher unions have also been active in conducting
research to investigate how teaching in the distance education and
online learning environment is different than teaching in the
classroom, and what impact that has on the nature of work and
quality of work life for its members.
This report describes a study conducted to explore written
provisions for the working conditions of K-12 distributed learning
(DL) teachers in Canada (i.e., distance education and online
learning are generally referred to DL throughout the report). At
present, there is one provincial jurisdiction that includes language
in their collective agreement with teachers related to DL. There
are also two provinces where there is language in one or more
local contracts focused on DL. Finally, there was one province
where the provincial teacher union had a significant policy related
to DL.
Within these documents, there were consistent themes around 1)
defining DL; 2) clauses focused on teacher working conditions in
the DLenvironment; 3) responsibilities for the schools and/or
school boards that choose to operate DL programs; and 4)
mechanisms to allow for consultations between those operating DL
program and the union. In all of these themes, there are actually
few regulations that go beyond what would be expected for
traditional brick-and-mortar education. The main areas where DL
teachers were treated differently than face-to-face teachers were
for legal reasons, as well as the provision for consultations
between DL operators and their respective unions. These unique
aspects are reflective of stakeholders’ efforts to examine what
constitutes the equivalent experiences for teaching in the DL
environment relative to traditional classroom teaching.
Formal Consultation Mechanisms
NSTU collective agreement
• 49.12 A standing Distributed Learning Committee consisting of two (2)
representatives from the Department of Education and Early Childhood
Development, two (2) representatives from School Boards and four (4)
representatives from the Union shall be established to address issues surrounding
the ongoing development of distributed learning. The Committee shall meet at
the request of either the Department of Education and Early Childhood
Development or Union but in any event not less than twice a year and provide a
written report to the parties bound by this Agreement. Without limiting the scope
of the Committee, the following are expected topics: the application of
reasonably equivalent hours of work; appropriate time and resources for those
teaching distributed learning courses; professional development; and
technological change.
Two of the five samples from the OSSTF
• XX.2.7.2 The Board will consult with the Bargaining Unit prior to offering
electronic credits to other regular day school students.
• 11. The Board agrees to inform the Union prior to implementing the electronic
and distance education delivery of secondary school credits in a school.
12. In the event there are changes to the Education Act with respect to Provincial
guidelines, funding or protocols, the Board and the Union agree to meet and
review how such required changes will be implemented.
Michael K. Barbour, Touro University California – mkbarbour@gmail.com
Randy LaBonte, Canadian eLearning Network – rlabonte@canelearn.net
References
Canadian Teachers Federation. (2000). Fact sheets on contractual issues in
distance/online education. Ottawa, ON: Author.
Government of British Columbia. (2006). Schools Act, 2006. Victoria, BC:
Author. Retrieved from
http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/legislation-
policy/legislation/schoollaw/revisedstatutescontents.pdf
Government of Nova Scotia. (2017). Agreement between the Minister of
Education and Early Childhood Development of the Province of Nova Scotia
and the Nova Scotia Teachers Union. Halifax, NS: Author. Retrieved from
https://www.nstu.ca/data/negotiationsprov/TPA-
Amended%20by%20Bill%2075%20Final%20Revised.pdf
Saskatchewan Teachers Federation. (2016). Saskatchewan Teachers Federation
governance handbook. Saskatoon, SK: Author. Retrieved from
https://www.stf.sk.ca/resource/stf-governance-handbook
Report available at
https://k12sotn.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/
DL-Contract-Language.pdf
Further information
Project Website – https://k12sotn.ca
Funding provided by…
The Study
Canadian Teachers’ Federation (2000)
produced a series of fact sheets
designed to describe the current state
of DL and discuss the various labour
issues this form of education raised.
• intellectual property rights of
the online course content;
• working conditions of teachers;
• job security for those engaged in
DL courses dependent on student
enrollment;
• access to training and resources
needed to teach online; and
• privacy concerns.
This study was conducted to explore written provisions in collection
agreements and union policy for the working conditions of K-12 DL teachers
in Canada.
Defining DL/e-Learning
• DL is “a method of instruction that relies primarily on
communication between students and teachers through the internet
or other electronic-based delivery, teleconferencing, video
conferencing or e-correspondence. It allows teachers, students, and
content to be located in different, non-centralized locations so that
instruction and learning can occur independent of time and place”
(Government of Nova Scotia, 2017, p. 56)
• online education is defined as “the delivery of educational materials
by a teacher through the use of the Internet or other technologies.
This can include distance classes, cyber-schools, exclusively online
education and in-classroom online instruction tools” (Saskatchewan
Teachers Federation, 2016, p. 90)
• DL is “a method of instruction that relies primarily on indirect
communication between students and teachers, including internet or
other electronic-based delivery, teleconferencing or
correspondence” (Government of British Columbia, 2006, p. C-13)
Teacher Working Conditions
In each of the collective agreements that were examined, clauses related to
teacher working conditions were the most common items represented.
These clauses had several thematic.
Note that, with the exception of two items, all of the themes were
represented in multiple sources.
School and School Board Responsibilities
The NSTU collective agreement required:
• schools must have student supervision at the local level when students are engaged in
distributed learning (48.05)
• schools must have a local distributed learning coordinator (48.06)
• if the course exists in the student’s local school, they must receive approval from the
school in order to take the course in a distributed learning environment (48.07)
Three of the five samples provided by the OSSTF:
• required the school board to appoint a district e-learning coordinator to oversee the
implementation of the board’s distributed learning plan
• focus on how schools and/or school boards implement their distributed learning
programs (e.g., scheduling, registration, and whether the program is part of the day
school or continuing education offerings are specifically referenced)
STF policy reads:
• when possible, online education should be based on a decentralized model of delivery
that reflects local contexts and supports, rather than replaces rural, remote or northern
schools
• online education may be a viable alternative for student engagement. The referral
process must be collaborative, respect student autonomy, meet students’ needs and
ensure ongoing supports are available
Key Takeaways
• In all of these examples, there are actually few
regulations that go beyond what would be expected for
traditional brick-and-mortar education.
o teachers are certified and that the courses they teach
are considered part of their formal workload.
o teachers undertake continuous professional
development, but in some distributed learning
programs specific training for teaching online may be
required and provided
o schools and/or school boards will provide teachers
with the resources – including the teaching resources,
physical space, and training – they need in order to
complete their job
• In areas where distributed learning teachers are treated
differently than face-to-face teachers, the regulations are
often completed for legal reasons.
1 of 1

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DLAC 2020 - The Union Experience: Examining Contract Language Related to E-Learning in Canada

  • 1. Executive Summary “Teacher unions in Canada have had concerns about developments in online learning, but have generally been supportive if they have felt conditions were appropriate,” according to the Director of Research and Technology at the British Columbia Teachers’ Federation (BCTF). This sentiment has been echoed by the researchers involved in the annual State of the Nation: K-12 E- Learning in Canada. These researchers have also underscored the fact that teacher unions have also been active in conducting research to investigate how teaching in the distance education and online learning environment is different than teaching in the classroom, and what impact that has on the nature of work and quality of work life for its members. This report describes a study conducted to explore written provisions for the working conditions of K-12 distributed learning (DL) teachers in Canada (i.e., distance education and online learning are generally referred to DL throughout the report). At present, there is one provincial jurisdiction that includes language in their collective agreement with teachers related to DL. There are also two provinces where there is language in one or more local contracts focused on DL. Finally, there was one province where the provincial teacher union had a significant policy related to DL. Within these documents, there were consistent themes around 1) defining DL; 2) clauses focused on teacher working conditions in the DLenvironment; 3) responsibilities for the schools and/or school boards that choose to operate DL programs; and 4) mechanisms to allow for consultations between those operating DL program and the union. In all of these themes, there are actually few regulations that go beyond what would be expected for traditional brick-and-mortar education. The main areas where DL teachers were treated differently than face-to-face teachers were for legal reasons, as well as the provision for consultations between DL operators and their respective unions. These unique aspects are reflective of stakeholders’ efforts to examine what constitutes the equivalent experiences for teaching in the DL environment relative to traditional classroom teaching. Formal Consultation Mechanisms NSTU collective agreement • 49.12 A standing Distributed Learning Committee consisting of two (2) representatives from the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, two (2) representatives from School Boards and four (4) representatives from the Union shall be established to address issues surrounding the ongoing development of distributed learning. The Committee shall meet at the request of either the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development or Union but in any event not less than twice a year and provide a written report to the parties bound by this Agreement. Without limiting the scope of the Committee, the following are expected topics: the application of reasonably equivalent hours of work; appropriate time and resources for those teaching distributed learning courses; professional development; and technological change. Two of the five samples from the OSSTF • XX.2.7.2 The Board will consult with the Bargaining Unit prior to offering electronic credits to other regular day school students. • 11. The Board agrees to inform the Union prior to implementing the electronic and distance education delivery of secondary school credits in a school. 12. In the event there are changes to the Education Act with respect to Provincial guidelines, funding or protocols, the Board and the Union agree to meet and review how such required changes will be implemented. Michael K. Barbour, Touro University California – mkbarbour@gmail.com Randy LaBonte, Canadian eLearning Network – rlabonte@canelearn.net References Canadian Teachers Federation. (2000). Fact sheets on contractual issues in distance/online education. Ottawa, ON: Author. Government of British Columbia. (2006). Schools Act, 2006. Victoria, BC: Author. Retrieved from http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/legislation- policy/legislation/schoollaw/revisedstatutescontents.pdf Government of Nova Scotia. (2017). Agreement between the Minister of Education and Early Childhood Development of the Province of Nova Scotia and the Nova Scotia Teachers Union. Halifax, NS: Author. Retrieved from https://www.nstu.ca/data/negotiationsprov/TPA- Amended%20by%20Bill%2075%20Final%20Revised.pdf Saskatchewan Teachers Federation. (2016). Saskatchewan Teachers Federation governance handbook. Saskatoon, SK: Author. Retrieved from https://www.stf.sk.ca/resource/stf-governance-handbook Report available at https://k12sotn.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/ DL-Contract-Language.pdf Further information Project Website – https://k12sotn.ca Funding provided by… The Study Canadian Teachers’ Federation (2000) produced a series of fact sheets designed to describe the current state of DL and discuss the various labour issues this form of education raised. • intellectual property rights of the online course content; • working conditions of teachers; • job security for those engaged in DL courses dependent on student enrollment; • access to training and resources needed to teach online; and • privacy concerns. This study was conducted to explore written provisions in collection agreements and union policy for the working conditions of K-12 DL teachers in Canada. Defining DL/e-Learning • DL is “a method of instruction that relies primarily on communication between students and teachers through the internet or other electronic-based delivery, teleconferencing, video conferencing or e-correspondence. It allows teachers, students, and content to be located in different, non-centralized locations so that instruction and learning can occur independent of time and place” (Government of Nova Scotia, 2017, p. 56) • online education is defined as “the delivery of educational materials by a teacher through the use of the Internet or other technologies. This can include distance classes, cyber-schools, exclusively online education and in-classroom online instruction tools” (Saskatchewan Teachers Federation, 2016, p. 90) • DL is “a method of instruction that relies primarily on indirect communication between students and teachers, including internet or other electronic-based delivery, teleconferencing or correspondence” (Government of British Columbia, 2006, p. C-13) Teacher Working Conditions In each of the collective agreements that were examined, clauses related to teacher working conditions were the most common items represented. These clauses had several thematic. Note that, with the exception of two items, all of the themes were represented in multiple sources. School and School Board Responsibilities The NSTU collective agreement required: • schools must have student supervision at the local level when students are engaged in distributed learning (48.05) • schools must have a local distributed learning coordinator (48.06) • if the course exists in the student’s local school, they must receive approval from the school in order to take the course in a distributed learning environment (48.07) Three of the five samples provided by the OSSTF: • required the school board to appoint a district e-learning coordinator to oversee the implementation of the board’s distributed learning plan • focus on how schools and/or school boards implement their distributed learning programs (e.g., scheduling, registration, and whether the program is part of the day school or continuing education offerings are specifically referenced) STF policy reads: • when possible, online education should be based on a decentralized model of delivery that reflects local contexts and supports, rather than replaces rural, remote or northern schools • online education may be a viable alternative for student engagement. The referral process must be collaborative, respect student autonomy, meet students’ needs and ensure ongoing supports are available Key Takeaways • In all of these examples, there are actually few regulations that go beyond what would be expected for traditional brick-and-mortar education. o teachers are certified and that the courses they teach are considered part of their formal workload. o teachers undertake continuous professional development, but in some distributed learning programs specific training for teaching online may be required and provided o schools and/or school boards will provide teachers with the resources – including the teaching resources, physical space, and training – they need in order to complete their job • In areas where distributed learning teachers are treated differently than face-to-face teachers, the regulations are often completed for legal reasons.

Editor's Notes

  1. Copyright Colin Purrington (http://colinpurrington.com/tips/academic/posterdesign).