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Learning Styles and StudentPerformance in an e-Learning        Environment          Presented By:Michael Barbour and Morri...
Background• Research was conducted with students  enrolled in Enterprise Education 3205  through the Centre for Distance  ...
Purpose of Research• In the classroom, we are able to adapt our  instructional approach, our methods, even our  instructio...
Research Profile• KB Personal Learning Guide• Standard learning styles measure  (visual, auditory, tactile)• Gardner’s mul...
Personal Learning Guide•   Students rate sets of words on how well the words describe    them.Discriminating     Tentative...
Personal Learning Guide• The four totals are plotted on the chart  below to form a kite.
Personal Learning Guide•   The Accommodative Learning Style - you have the ability to learn primarily    from hands-on exp...
Personal Learning GuideStudent   Accommodator   Diverger   Converger   Assimilator   Final Mark001           43.5%        ...
Personal Learning GuideNumber of   Accommodator   Diverger   Converger AssimilatorstudentsHighest       60.8%        63.8%...
Standard Measure•   Students were given a statement and asked to give it a ratingI remember information better from lectur...
Standard MeasureVisual Learners - you have to see it to believe it•   needs to see it to know it•   strong sense of colour...
Standard MeasureStudent   Visual   Auditory   Tactile   Final Mark001         15        14        24          60%         ...
Standard MeasureNumber of      Visual      Auditory       TactilestudentsHighest     73.5% (n=13) 61.4%(n=9) 66.6% (n=14)n...
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences•   Students were given a statement and asked to state if it was    true or false. If the ...
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences•   Interpersonal Intelligence - Telecommunications programs;    programs which address so...
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences•   Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence - Programs that combine stories    with songs; reading p...
Gardner’s Multiple IntelligencesStudent   Interpersonal    Bodily-      Intrapersonal     Logical-     Musical-    Verbal-...
Gardner’s Multiple IntelligencesStudent   Interpersonal    Bodily-      Intrapersonal     Logical-     Musical-    Verbal-...
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences          Inter-     Bodily-       Intra-     Logical-      Musical-   Verbal-      Visual...
Trends and Patterns• Students with the assimilative learningstyle (KB) tend to perform better thanstudents from any of the...
Trends and Patterns• Students who are visual learners performbetter than students who are tactile learners,who perform bet...
Ramifications• When teaching in an e-learningenvironment, instructors should providemore feedback to students, particularl...
Ramifications• Finally, instructors in an e-learningenvironment should consider allowingstudents to choose to complete mor...
Future Research• Continue present course of researchwith additional students in future years.• Consider having students co...
ReferencesEdwards, Jack. "Multiple Intelligences and Technology." AboutFace 10 3 (1995): 4 pages. 08 August 1999<http://ww...
Contact InformationMichael Barbour    mkb@ncf.caMorris Cooze     mcooze@stemnet.nf.caPresentation available at:     http:/...
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CADE 2003 - Effects of Different Learning Styles in eLearning Environments

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Barbour, M. K., & Cooze, M. (2003, June). Effects of different learning styles in eLearning environments. Paper presented at the annual Canadian Association for Distance Education conference, St. John's, NL.

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CADE 2003 - Effects of Different Learning Styles in eLearning Environments

  1. 1. Learning Styles and StudentPerformance in an e-Learning Environment Presented By:Michael Barbour and Morris Cooze
  2. 2. Background• Research was conducted with students enrolled in Enterprise Education 3205 through the Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation. (CDLI)• Students completed the prescribed curriculum solely through e-Learning.• 32 of the 44 students completed a learning styles inventory and agreed to the release of their marks.
  3. 3. Purpose of Research• In the classroom, we are able to adapt our instructional approach, our methods, even our instructional material.• This is much more difficult to accomplish in an e-learning environment.• Does the e-learning environment created by the CDLI lend itself to one learning style over another?• If it does, what can the CDLI do to help learners achieve in the environment that they have created?
  4. 4. Research Profile• KB Personal Learning Guide• Standard learning styles measure (visual, auditory, tactile)• Gardner’s multiple intelligences
  5. 5. Personal Learning Guide• Students rate sets of words on how well the words describe them.Discriminating Tentative Involved Practical 4 Best characterises 3 Next best 2 Next best 1 Least characterises• Once the students have rated nine sets, they are asked to add their responses to certain sets together to give them four totals
  6. 6. Personal Learning Guide• The four totals are plotted on the chart below to form a kite.
  7. 7. Personal Learning Guide• The Accommodative Learning Style - you have the ability to learn primarily from hands-on experience. You probably enjoy carrying out plans and involving yourself in new and challenging experiences. Your tendency may be to act on intuition and "gut feel" rather than careful analysis. When a thoughtful approach does not seem to be working out, you will be quick to discard it and improvise.• The Divergent Learning Style - you probably have the ability to view specific situations from many perspectives. For example, you may enjoy brainstorming and small group discussions. You also like to gather information and probably have broad interests. Your tendency may be to watch events rather than participate in them.• The Convergent Learning Style - you have the ability to find practical applications for ideas, concepts and theories. In particular you enjoy situations where there is a single or best answer to a question or problem. You may usually assume there is one best answer and use technical analysis to reveal it. You also may usually prefer to deal with technical issues rather than people issues.• The Assimilative Learning Style - you have the ability to create theoretical models (ideas that predict outcomes and descriptions of how different factor interact). You most likely enjoy inductive reasoning and distil disparate observations into logical explanations.[1] [1] David A. Kolb and Richard J. Baker, Personal Learning Guide: A practical guide to increasing your learning from a training program or workshop, (Baker & Company: Dallas, TX, 1979-80), pp. 11-17.
  8. 8. Personal Learning GuideStudent Accommodator Diverger Converger Assimilator Final Mark001 43.5% 6.5% 43.5% 6.5% 60% 021 67.1% 21.5% 8.7% 2.8% 50%002 0.5% 9.9% 85.0% 4.6% 84% 022 27.3% 44.8% 9.5% 18.3% 72%003 26.2% 30.9% 19.7% 23.2% 65% 023 7.5% 6.2% 47.3% 39.1% 85%004 21.4% 1.7% 33.9% 27.4% 78% 024 36.9% 4.8% 51.1% 7.2% 53%005 12.8% 4.9% 59.7% 22.7% 80% 025 3.9% 4.0% 45.5% 46.6% 95%006 6.4% 1.8% 71.9% 20.0% 78% 026 29.1% 15.3% 36.4% 19.2% 70%007 26.7% 36.0% 15.9% 21.4% 92% 027 51.8% 48.2% 0% 0% 74%008 26.0% 14.7% 37.9% 21.4% 56% 028 3.7% 26.6% 10.6% 59.1% 77%009 47.3% 8.8% 37.0% 6.9% 53% 029 27.6% 48.7% 8.6% 15.2% 63%010 23.5% 33.6% 17.7% 25.2% 84% 030 33.7% 31.6% 17.8% 16.8% 63%011 5.5% 35.4% 8.0% 51.1% 94% 031 34.4% 33.7% 16.1% 15.8% 65%012 9.6% 75.1% 1.7% 13.7% 72% 032 37.0% 39.0% 11.7% 12.3% 53%013 10.0% 47.1% 7.5% 35.4% 20%014 15.3% 75.0% 1.6% 8.0% 63%015 19.0% 59.5% 5.2% 16.2% 82%016 31.1% 56.5% 4.4% 8.1% 60%017 23.7% 29.2% 21.1% 26.0% 58%018 37.2% 62.8% 0% 0% 64%019 17.7% 33.2% 17.0% 32.1% 50%020 35.3% 54.9% 3.9% 5.9% 56%
  9. 9. Personal Learning GuideNumber of Accommodator Diverger Converger AssimilatorstudentsHighest 60.8% 63.8% 71.6% 88.7%number (n=6) (n=15) (n=9) (n=3)Above 59.3% 62.6% 76.4% 88.7%40% (n=4) (n=10) (n=6) (n=3)Above 59.2% 66.2% 72.0% 80.2%30% (n=11) (n=18) (n=11) (n=6)
  10. 10. Standard Measure• Students were given a statement and asked to give it a ratingI remember information better from lectures with explanations and discussions.I chew gum or snack when I study. 3 Often 2 Sometimes 1 Seldom• After students had responded to 24 of these statements, they were asked to write the numbers they selected for each statement into three different columns and total each column.
  11. 11. Standard MeasureVisual Learners - you have to see it to believe it• needs to see it to know it• strong sense of colour• may have artistic ability• difficulty with spoken directions• over-reaction to sounds• trouble following lectures• misinterpretation of wordsAuditory Learner - if you hear it, you remember it• prefers to get information by listening• needs to hear it to know it• difficulty following written directions• difficulty with reading and writingTactual Learner - if you can touch it with your hands, you will remember it• prefers hands-on learning• can assemble parts without reading directions• difficulty sitting still• learns better when physical activity is involved• may be very well co-ordinated and have athletic ability[1] [1] Unknown, "Learning Lab - Learning Styles Evaluation," University of Northwestern Ohio (1998): 3 pages. 08 August 1999 <http://bsd-server.nc.edu/virtcol/ss/learn.html>.
  12. 12. Standard MeasureStudent Visual Auditory Tactile Final Mark001 15 14 24 60% 021 20 18 18 50%002 21 16 14 84%003 17 13 20 65% 022 20 17 18 72%004 18 16 22 78% 023 19 12 20 85%005 17 16 21 80% 024 15 19 22 53%006 19 15 15 78%007 21 15 12 92% 025 18 19 16 95%008 17 19 18 56% 026 20 18 18 70%009 16 20 20 53%010 19 16 18 84% 027 16 16 15 74%011 19 17 16 94% 028 21 16 18 77%012 13 11 15 72% 029 18 17 18 63%013 15 17 17 20%014 11 15 17 63% 030 12 18 11 63%015 16 19 17 82% 031 14 10 10 65%016 14 19 18 60%017 12 14 15 58% 032 12 11 8 53%018 18 15 19 64%019 18 19 14 50%020 17 13 18 56%
  13. 13. Standard MeasureNumber of Visual Auditory TactilestudentsHighest 73.5% (n=13) 61.4%(n=9) 66.6% (n=14)numberAbove 20 74.2% (n=6) 53.0%(n=1) 67.7% (n=7) *Above 18 75.7% (n=15) 63.2%(n=10) 66.2% (n=17) * Only one respondent
  14. 14. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Students were given a statement and asked to state if it was true or false. If the statement was true sometimes and false sometimes, they were to leave it blank.2. If I am angry or happy, I usually know why.8. I pick up new dance steps quickly.• After students had responded to 35 of these statements, they were asked to write an X over the numbers that they had responded “T” to based on the following table: A 9 10 17 22 30 = B 5 7 15 20 25 = C 1 11 14 23 27 = D 8 16 19 21 29 = E 3 4 13 24 28 = F 2 6 26 31 33 = G 12 18 32 34 35 =
  15. 15. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Interpersonal Intelligence - Telecommunications programs; programs which address social issues; programs which include group presentation or decision making; games which require two or more players; TV production team approach• Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - Software requiring alternate input such as joystick, mouse, or touch window; keyboarding and word processing programs; animation programs; programs which allow them to move objects around the screen; science probeware• Intrapersonal Intelligence - Computer assisted instruction/ILS labs; instructional games in which the opponent is the computer; programs which encourage self-awareness or build self-improvement skills; any program which allow them to work independently; brainstorming or problem solving software• Logical/Mathematical Intelligence - Database and spreadsheet programs; problem solving software; computer programming software; strategy game formats/simulations; calculators; multimedia authoring programs
  16. 16. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence - Programs that combine stories with songs; reading programs which associate letter/sounds with music; programs which allow them to create their own song; constructing presentations using CD audio discs, videodisc player, and barcode program; sing along videodisc programs that display work "karaoke" style• Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence - Word processors that allow voice annotations; desktop publishing programs; programs with speech output; programs which encourage them to create poetry, essays, etc.; multimedia authoring; using videodiscs and barcode programs to create presentations; tape recorders; telecommunications/electronic networking• Visual/Spatial Intelligence - Draw and paint programs; reading programs that use visual clues such as rebus method or colour coding; programs which allow them to see information as maps, charts, or diagrams (i.e. charting capability of spreadsheet program; multimedia programs; science probeware[1] [1] Jack Edwards, "Multiple Intelligences and Technology," About Face 10 3 (1995): 4 pages. 08 August 1999 <http://www.firn.edu/~face/about/dec95/mult_int.html>.
  17. 17. Gardner’s Multiple IntelligencesStudent Interpersonal Bodily- Intrapersonal Logical- Musical- Verbal- Visual- Final Kinesthetic Mathematical Rhythmic Linguistic Spatial Mark001 4 3 3 3 5 3 4 60%002 4 3 1 4 4 1 5 84%003 3 5 2 4 2 2 3 65%004 3 2 2 4 3 4 5 78%005 1 1 1 3 3 1 4 80%006 4 3 1 2 2 5 2 78%007 5 5 3 3 2 5 5 92%008 4 3 0 4 2 5 2 56%009 5 5 2 4 5 4 5 53%010 3 4 3 3 2 2 3 84%011 1 2 2 3 4 3 1 94%012 0 2 3 3 2 5 2 72%013 3 3 0 4 3 4 4 20%014 2 4 1 1 1 1 0 63%015 2 2 2 4 4 3 5 82%016 2 1 2 3 5 5 3 60%017 2 1 3 3 1 5 3 58%018 3 5 2 4 5 1 3 64%019 2 2 0 1 5 5 4 50%020 3 1 3 3 4 2 2 56%
  18. 18. Gardner’s Multiple IntelligencesStudent Interpersonal Bodily- Intrapersonal Logical- Musical- Verbal- Visual- Final Kinesthetic Mathematical Rhythmic Linguistic Spatial Mark021 4 3 3 4 5 4 5 50%022 4 4 2 3 2 5 5 72%023 4 5 2 5 4 2 5 85%024 5 5 3 5 5 5 5 53%025 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 95%026 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 70%027 1 3 0 3 0 3 0 74%028 2 3 3 4 3 3 4 77%029 2 1 1 3 2 4 4 63%030 4 4 1 3 5 4 4 63%031 5 3 0 4 4 3 5 65%032 2 4 4 4 5 4 5 53%
  19. 19. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Inter- Bodily- Intra- Logical- Musical- Verbal- Visual- personal Kinesthetic personal Mathematics Rhythmic Linguistic SpatialHighest 71.6% 70.3% 95.0% 67.7% 60.0% 62.3% 68.9%Number (n=5) (n=10) (n=1)* (n=7) (n=10) (n=12) (n=16)Above 4 69.7% 68.1% 74.0% 65.6% 64.8% 57.6% 67.1% (n=14) (n=12) (n=2) (n=16) (n=15) (n=16) (n=19)* Only one respondent
  20. 20. Trends and Patterns• Students with the assimilative learningstyle (KB) tend to perform better thanstudents from any of the other threelearning styles.• Students with the convergent learningstyle (KB) tend to perform better thanstudents from the divergent andaccommodative learning styles.
  21. 21. Trends and Patterns• Students who are visual learners performbetter than students who are tactile learners,who perform better than auditory learners.• While there are few differences in studentperformance based upon Gardner’s multipleintelligences, students who have aptitudes for“Musical-Rhythmic” and “Verbal-Linguistic”appear to be lower than the other fiveintelligences.
  22. 22. Ramifications• When teaching in an e-learningenvironment, instructors should providemore feedback to students, particularlythose with the accommodative learningstyle.• Instructors should also provideadditional opportunities for students tointeract in a verbal (e.g., audio or text-based) way.
  23. 23. Ramifications• Finally, instructors in an e-learningenvironment should consider allowingstudents to choose to complete more oftheir work in groups.• In designing e-learning environments,developers should make sure to includemore audio items.
  24. 24. Future Research• Continue present course of researchwith additional students in future years.• Consider having students complete thesame course in different content shellsthat have learning tools suited to onelearning style over another.
  25. 25. ReferencesEdwards, Jack. "Multiple Intelligences and Technology." AboutFace 10 3 (1995): 4 pages. 08 August 1999<http://www.firn.edu/~face/about/dec95/mult_int.html>.Kolb, David A. and Baker, Richard J.. Personal Learning Guide:A practical guide to increasing your learning from a trainingprogram or workshop. Baker & Company: Dallas, TX, 1979-80.Unknown. "Learning Lab - Learning Styles Evaluation."University of Northwestern Ohio (1998): 3 pages. 08 August1999 <http://bsd-server.nc.edu/virtcol/ss/learn.html>.
  26. 26. Contact InformationMichael Barbour mkb@ncf.caMorris Cooze mcooze@stemnet.nf.caPresentation available at: http://www.ncf.ca/~an650

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