American Journal of Distance Education (United States) - 8 US Journal of Distance Education (Canada) - 4 Cdn / 1 Aus Distance Education (Australia) - 2 Aus / 4 US Journal of Distance Learning (New Zealand) - 1 NZ / 1 Cdn / 1 US-Cdn Last five years - 24 articles out of a total of 262 related to K-12 distance education
Common link between both assessments is the pre-occupation of researchers with comparing student performance in an effort to show the effectiveness of online
Which naturally leads to the question of how should we be doing educational research when it comes to K-12 online learning?
Another problem is what we measure... 1. Correlation does not equal causality 2. Single studies measure if there is a difference between two groups beyond chance Need for meta-analysis...
In fact, if you look at many of the factors that proponents of K-12 online learning trumpet, most have little impact on student learning beyond what an average teacher and the normal process of aging would have. So, what do Hattie’s findings tell us?
Good teachers and the act of teaching well can have significant impacts Some design and delivery lessons applicable to K-12 online learning: direct instruction, mastery learning, worked examples, concept mapping, setting goals But this is just the research on student performance, what about the other research?
Most of the remainder research is also problematic - primarily due to methodological limitations and overreaching Barbour - principles of effective online course design based upon interviews with teachers at a single virtual school DiPietro et al. - best practice in online teaching based upon interviews with teachers at a single virtual school
Bridgewater Academy - Researching K-12 Online Teaching
Researching K-12 Online Teaching Michael K. Barbour Assistant Professor Wayne State University
Agenda1. Let’s review…2. Lessons from methodologically limited studies?3. Lessons from the Virtual High School?
What about research?• “a paucity of research exists when examining high school students enrolled in virtual schools, and the research base is smaller still when the population of students is further narrowed to the elementary grades” (Rice, 2006)
What does the research say?1. Comparisons of student performance based upon delivery model (i.e., classroom vs. online)2. Studies examining the qualities and characteristics of the teaching/learning experience – characteristics of – supports provided to – issues related to isolation of online learners (Rice, 2006)1. Effectiveness of virtual schooling2. Student readiness and retention issues (Cavanaugh et al., 2009)
Much of the research ismethodologically flawed ormethodologically limited!
Examining Effect Sizes Teacher Effects Zone of Desired EffectsDevelopmentalEffectsReverseEffects
Results of Interest• Second and third chance programs (d=0.50)• Matching style of learning (d=0.40)• Computer assisted instruction (d=0.37)• Decreasing disruptive behavior (d=0.34)• Programmed instruction (d=0.24)• Individualized instruction (d=0.23)• Class size (d=0.21)• Charter schools (d=0.20)• Web-based learning (d=0.18)• Home-school programs (d=0.16)• Teacher training (d=0.11)• Teacher subject matter knowledge (d=0.09)• Distance education (d=0.09)• Student control over learning (d=0.04) 8
Results to Consider• Providing formative evaluation (d=0.90)• Micro teaching (d=0.88)• Teacher clarity (d=0.75)• Providing feedback (d=0.73)• Teacher-student relationships (d=0.72)• Teaching strategies (d=0.60)• Cooperative vs. individualistic learning (d=0.59)• Study skills (d=0.59)• Direct instruction (d=0.59)• Mastery learning (d=0.58)• Worked examples (d=0.57)• Concept mapping (d=0.57)• Goals (d=0.56)• Peer tutoring (d=0.55)• Cooperative vs. competitive learning (d=0.54)
Problematic ResearchOnline 7 principles of Interviews with teachers and courseCourse effective online developers at a single virtual school,Design course content with no verification of whether the for adolescent interviewees’ perceptions were actuallyBarbour learners effective or any student input at all for(2005; 2007) that matter.Online 37 best Interviews with teachers at a singleTeaching practices in virtual school selected by the virtual asynchronous school itself. Their teachers’ beliefsDiPietro et online teaching were not validated through observational. (2008) of the teaching or student performance.
DiPietro et al. (2008)• 12 general characteristics • Interview data• 2 classroom management strategies • 16 MVS teachers• 3 pedagogical strategies: assessment • teachers selected• 6 pedagogical strategies: engaging by MVS students with content• 4 pedagogical practices: making course meaningful for students• 1 pedagogical strategies: providing support• 5 pedagogical strategies: communication & community• 3 technology http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/viewarticle.cfm?volID=7&IssueID=22&ArticleID=113&Source=2
DiPietro et al. (2008)• 12 general characteristics • interview data• 2 classroom management strategies • 16 MVS teachers• 3 pedagogical strategies: assessment • teachers selected• 6 pedagogical strategies: engaging by MVS students with content• 4 pedagogical practices: making course meaningful for students• 1 pedagogical strategies: providing support• 5 pedagogical strategies: communication & community• 3 technology http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/viewarticle.cfm?volID=7&IssueID=22&ArticleID=113&Source=2
Muirhead (2000)• focusing interactions between • review of students, parents and colleagues on practices in issues surrounding teaching and Alberta learning supplemental virtual schools International Journal of Educational Management: vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 315-324
Weiner (2003)• key ingredients to online learning lies • 12 teachers at solely within motivational issues Oregon• the importance of being a CyberSchool disciplined, self-motivated student, regardless of whether or not the • 103 potential students considered themselves one students (no data• the majority of students are not on how many independent learners and need participated) structure to guide them • surveys and• social interactions among peers are interviews just as important as pedagogical ones• teacher-student interaction is critical International Journal on E-Learning: vol. 2, no.3, pp. 44-50
Ferdig & Cavanaugh (2010)• understanding different learning styles, providing timely feedback, encouraging communication, providing alternative opportunities for the creation of artifacts, and the ability to gain both remedial and advanced knowledge acquisition based on the needs of learners • Chapters written• be innovative with technology by individual• use data collected by the SIS and LMS program leaders• communicate with all of the stakeholders involved in the• prepare students and teachers Virtual School• use school facilitators and/or mentors Clearinghouse• provide support for everyone http://www.inacol.org/research/bookstore/detail.php?id=21
Virtual High School1. Principles that Support Effective Moderation2. Negotiating Space: Forms of Dialogue and Goals of Moderating3. Key Facilitator Roles4. Healthy Online Communities5. Voice6. Tone7. Critical Thinking Strategies8. Roadblocks and Getting Back on Track http://www.amazon.com/Facilitating-Online-Learning-Strategies-Moderators/dp/1891859331