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Bridgewater Academy - Researching K-12 Online Teaching

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Barbour, M. K. (2011, October). Researching K-12 online teaching. An invited presentation to Bridgewater Academy, Rock Rapids, IA.

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Bridgewater Academy - Researching K-12 Online Teaching

  1. 1. Researching K-12 Online Teaching Michael K. Barbour Assistant Professor Wayne State University
  2. 2. Agenda1. Let’s review…2. Lessons from methodologically limited studies?3. Lessons from the Virtual High School?
  3. 3. What about research?• “a paucity of research exists when examining high school students enrolled in virtual schools, and the research base is smaller still when the population of students is further narrowed to the elementary grades” (Rice, 2006)
  4. 4. What does the research say?1. Comparisons of student performance based upon delivery model (i.e., classroom vs. online)2. Studies examining the qualities and characteristics of the teaching/learning experience – characteristics of – supports provided to – issues related to isolation of online learners (Rice, 2006)1. Effectiveness of virtual schooling2. Student readiness and retention issues (Cavanaugh et al., 2009)
  5. 5. Much of the research ismethodologically flawed ormethodologically limited!
  6. 6. Problem With Student Performance Studies
  7. 7. Examining Effect Sizes Teacher Effects Zone of Desired EffectsDevelopmentalEffectsReverseEffects
  8. 8. Results of Interest• Second and third chance programs (d=0.50)• Matching style of learning (d=0.40)• Computer assisted instruction (d=0.37)• Decreasing disruptive behavior (d=0.34)• Programmed instruction (d=0.24)• Individualized instruction (d=0.23)• Class size (d=0.21)• Charter schools (d=0.20)• Web-based learning (d=0.18)• Home-school programs (d=0.16)• Teacher training (d=0.11)• Teacher subject matter knowledge (d=0.09)• Distance education (d=0.09)• Student control over learning (d=0.04) 8
  9. 9. Results to Consider• Providing formative evaluation (d=0.90)• Micro teaching (d=0.88)• Teacher clarity (d=0.75)• Providing feedback (d=0.73)• Teacher-student relationships (d=0.72)• Teaching strategies (d=0.60)• Cooperative vs. individualistic learning (d=0.59)• Study skills (d=0.59)• Direct instruction (d=0.59)• Mastery learning (d=0.58)• Worked examples (d=0.57)• Concept mapping (d=0.57)• Goals (d=0.56)• Peer tutoring (d=0.55)• Cooperative vs. competitive learning (d=0.54)
  10. 10. Problematic ResearchOnline 7 principles of Interviews with teachers and courseCourse effective online developers at a single virtual school,Design course content with no verification of whether the for adolescent interviewees’ perceptions were actuallyBarbour learners effective or any student input at all for(2005; 2007) that matter.Online 37 best Interviews with teachers at a singleTeaching practices in virtual school selected by the virtual asynchronous school itself. Their teachers’ beliefsDiPietro et online teaching were not validated through observational. (2008) of the teaching or student performance.
  11. 11. DiPietro et al. (2008)• 12 general characteristics • Interview data• 2 classroom management strategies • 16 MVS teachers• 3 pedagogical strategies: assessment • teachers selected• 6 pedagogical strategies: engaging by MVS students with content• 4 pedagogical practices: making course meaningful for students• 1 pedagogical strategies: providing support• 5 pedagogical strategies: communication & community• 3 technology http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/viewarticle.cfm?volID=7&IssueID=22&ArticleID=113&Source=2
  12. 12. DiPietro et al. (2008)• 12 general characteristics • interview data• 2 classroom management strategies • 16 MVS teachers• 3 pedagogical strategies: assessment • teachers selected• 6 pedagogical strategies: engaging by MVS students with content• 4 pedagogical practices: making course meaningful for students• 1 pedagogical strategies: providing support• 5 pedagogical strategies: communication & community• 3 technology http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/viewarticle.cfm?volID=7&IssueID=22&ArticleID=113&Source=2
  13. 13. Muirhead (2000)• focusing interactions between • review of students, parents and colleagues on practices in issues surrounding teaching and Alberta learning supplemental virtual schools International Journal of Educational Management: vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 315-324
  14. 14. Weiner (2003)• key ingredients to online learning lies • 12 teachers at solely within motivational issues Oregon• the importance of being a CyberSchool disciplined, self-motivated student, regardless of whether or not the • 103 potential students considered themselves one students (no data• the majority of students are not on how many independent learners and need participated) structure to guide them • surveys and• social interactions among peers are interviews just as important as pedagogical ones• teacher-student interaction is critical International Journal on E-Learning: vol. 2, no.3, pp. 44-50
  15. 15. Ferdig & Cavanaugh (2010)• understanding different learning styles, providing timely feedback, encouraging communication, providing alternative opportunities for the creation of artifacts, and the ability to gain both remedial and advanced knowledge acquisition based on the needs of learners • Chapters written• be innovative with technology by individual• use data collected by the SIS and LMS program leaders• communicate with all of the stakeholders involved in the• prepare students and teachers Virtual School• use school facilitators and/or mentors Clearinghouse• provide support for everyone http://www.inacol.org/research/bookstore/detail.php?id=21
  16. 16. Virtual High School1. Principles that Support Effective Moderation2. Negotiating Space: Forms of Dialogue and Goals of Moderating3. Key Facilitator Roles4. Healthy Online Communities5. Voice6. Tone7. Critical Thinking Strategies8. Roadblocks and Getting Back on Track http://www.amazon.com/Facilitating-Online-Learning-Strategies-Moderators/dp/1891859331
  17. 17. YourQuestions andComments
  18. 18. Assistant Professor Wayne State University, USA mkbarbour@gmail.com http://www.michaelbarbour.comhttp://virtualschooling.wordpress.com

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