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Does Prior Distance Learning Make aDifference? Examining Student Perceptionsand PreferencesDr. Dale Kirby, Dr. Michael Bar...
Newfoundland and Labrador
PopulationDensity
Context: Newfoundland and Labrador• Island itself is almost one-and-three-quarters  times the size of Great Britain• Large...
Communities: Norman Bay, Pop. ~52
Communities: English Hr. W., Pop. ~670
Communities: Nain, Pop. ~1,034
Communities: Francois, Pop. ~134
Killick Centre for E-Learning Research                            www.killickcentre.ca                                 Fac...
Student Transition StudyExamine and compare the tertiary educationand workforce transition experiences of studentswho take...
Objective of Current StudyCompare university students who completed onlinecourses in high school with university students ...
High School Online Learner Characteristics    • High school online learners are very academically      capable, highly lit...
Online Learning in High School      • Some rural students complete courses only available        online      • Some jurisd...
Study: Sample and Participants• Sample of 160 fourth-year undergraduate students• 127 successfully contacted/interviewed (...
Study: Survey Instrument    • Self-regulatory skills - 4 items5    • Distance education self-efficacy - 12 items 5    • On...
Study: Survey Instrument    • Student expectations online courses - 7 items 7    • Perception of online course communicati...
Data Analysis                                           Mean ScoresVariable                 Distance Courses in No Distanc...
Data Analysis                                            Mean ScoresVariable                  Distance Courses in No Dista...
Data Analysis• Groupwise comparisons via ANOVAs:   no significant differences on any of the composite    measures
Discussion• Self-regulatory learning behaviors, attitudes,  expectations similar across groups• No evidence that high scho...
Discussion• Prior-high school online learning experience does  not necessarily indicate that students:   are more prepare...
Thank you!     Contact:     Dale Kirby: dkirby@mun.ca     Michael Barbour: mkbarbour@gmail.com     Dennis Sharpe: dsharpe@...
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AERA 2012 - Does Prior Distance Learning Make a Difference? Examining Student Perceptions and Preferences

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Kirby, D., Barbour, M. K., & Sharpe, D. (2012, April). Does prior distance learning make a difference? Examining student perceptions and preferences. A poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, BC.

K-12 online learning has grown substantially. While there are many reasons for this growth, some proponents argue K-12 students need to engage in online learning to prepare them for future learning opportunities that will inevitably be online. In a case study, students who had completed at least one distance education course were surveyed during their first and fourth year of post-secondary studies. We found self-regulatory learning behaviors frequently linked to positive experiences and outcomes in online and distance education courses were equally apparent in all of the participating university students regardless of whether or not they had previously studied online. These findings suggest high school students do not gain independent learning skills and attitudes through learning in an online environment.

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AERA 2012 - Does Prior Distance Learning Make a Difference? Examining Student Perceptions and Preferences

  1. 1. Does Prior Distance Learning Make aDifference? Examining Student Perceptionsand PreferencesDr. Dale Kirby, Dr. Michael Barbour & Dr. Dennis Sharpe
  2. 2. Newfoundland and Labrador
  3. 3. PopulationDensity
  4. 4. Context: Newfoundland and Labrador• Island itself is almost one-and-three-quarters times the size of Great Britain• Larger rural population than Canada as whole• 40% population in centres with <1000 people• Most schools considered rural• 1/3 of schools designated necessarily existent• Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation - Web-based delivery of high school courses
  5. 5. Communities: Norman Bay, Pop. ~52
  6. 6. Communities: English Hr. W., Pop. ~670
  7. 7. Communities: Nain, Pop. ~1,034
  8. 8. Communities: Francois, Pop. ~134
  9. 9. Killick Centre for E-Learning Research www.killickcentre.ca Faculty of Education Memorial University of Newfoundland• SSHRC CURA - 8 studies in total• Overall goals: - Build capacity and increase e-learning research activity - Facilitate knowledge exchange in e-learning
  10. 10. Student Transition StudyExamine and compare the tertiary educationand workforce transition experiences of studentswho take online courses in high school andstudents who do not
  11. 11. Objective of Current StudyCompare university students who completed onlinecourses in high school with university students whodid not:• assessment of self-regulatory skills• distance education self-efficacy• expectations of online distance education• perception of online course communications• satisfaction with online courses
  12. 12. High School Online Learner Characteristics • High school online learners are very academically capable, highly literate, technologically adept • Highly motivated, self-disciplined, independent, planning attend university1 • Choice to participate in high school online learning influenced by a selection factor or selection bias2,31 Barbour, M. K., & Reeves, T. C. (2009). The reality of virtual schools: A review of the literature. Computers & Education, 52, 402–416.2 Crocker, R. (2007). Distance learning: Access and outcomes. St. Johns, NL: Killick Centre for E-Learning Research.3 Hannum, W. H., Irvin, M. J., Banks, J. B., & Farmer, T. W. (2009). Distance education use in rural schools. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 24(3). Retrieved June 18, 2009, from http://jrre.psu.edu/articles/24-3.pdf
  13. 13. Online Learning in High School • Some rural students complete courses only available online • Some jurisdictions in the U.S. require high school online course • Skills development from online learning experience • High school online learning helps some students develop skills that facilitate further learning44 Kirby, D., Sharpe, D., Bourgeois, M., & Greene, M. (2010). Graduates of the new learning environment: A follow-up study of high school distance e-learners. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 11(3), 161-173.
  14. 14. Study: Sample and Participants• Sample of 160 fourth-year undergraduate students• 127 successfully contacted/interviewed (response rate of 79.4%)• 56 students (44.1%) had completed high school online courses• 71 students (55.9%) had not completed high school online courses• All students completed one or more university online courses
  15. 15. Study: Survey Instrument • Self-regulatory skills - 4 items5 • Distance education self-efficacy - 12 items 5 • Online self-regulatory learning behaviors 6  Self-evaluation (of learning) - 4 items  Goal setting - 5 items  Environment structuring - 4 items  Time management - 3 items5 Holcomb, L., King, F., & Brown, S. (2004). Student traits and attributes contributing to success in online courses: Evaluation of university online courses. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 2(3), 1-17.6 Barnard, L., Paton, V., & Lan, W. (2008). Online self-regulatory learning behaviors as a mediator in the relationship between online course perceptions with achievement. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(2), 1-11.
  16. 16. Study: Survey Instrument • Student expectations online courses - 7 items 7 • Perception of online course communication and collaboration - 11 items8 • Satisfaction with distance education – 9 items 97 House, L., Weldon, R., & Wysocki, A. (2007). Student perceptions of online distance education in undergraduate agricultural economic programs. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 39(2), 275-284.8 Barnard, L., Paton, V., & Rose, K. (2007). Perceptions of online course communications and collaboration. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 10(4), 1-10.9 Walker, S. L. (2005). Development of the Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES) for higher education. The Texas Journal of Distance Learning, 2(1), 1-16.
  17. 17. Data Analysis Mean ScoresVariable Distance Courses in No Distance Courses Total High School in High SchoolSelf- Regulation 1.97 1.94 1.95α=.706 Distance Education 2.16 2.19 2.18Self- Efficacyα=.880Self- Evaluationα=.724 2.40 2.54 2.47Goal Settingα=.820 2.03 2.02 2.03 Environment 1.76 1.81 1.79 Structuringα=.869 Time Management 2.54 2.45 2.49α=.710
  18. 18. Data Analysis Mean ScoresVariable Distance Courses in No Distance Courses Total High School in High School Distance Education 2.68 2.63 2.65 Expectationsα=. 843 Perception of Distance 2.42 2.59 2.51 Course Comm. and Collaborationα=. 858 Satisfaction with 2.50 2.50 2.50 Distance Educationα=. 910
  19. 19. Data Analysis• Groupwise comparisons via ANOVAs:  no significant differences on any of the composite measures
  20. 20. Discussion• Self-regulatory learning behaviors, attitudes, expectations similar across groups• No evidence that high school online learners were advantaged or superior to other university students• This is contrary to the claims made by some proponents of online learning at the secondary level
  21. 21. Discussion• Prior-high school online learning experience does not necessarily indicate that students:  are more prepared for distance learning;  have greater affinity for it; or  have more developed/superior skills that advantage them.
  22. 22. Thank you! Contact: Dale Kirby: dkirby@mun.ca Michael Barbour: mkbarbour@gmail.com Dennis Sharpe: dsharpe@mun.ca

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