Common Definition: A programmable machine that imitates
the actions or appearance of an intelligent creature –
usually a human.
Should be able to do two things:
• Get information from its surroundings
• Do something physical work.
• First programmable Robot was developed in
1954 by George Devol
- Coined the name of the first Robot Company,
* By utilizing available sensors and actuators, we can design
the behaviors of a robot and then decide the execution rules
among those behaviors. While doing this developing, we also
evaluate the robot’s performance and modify the behaviors
and execution rules. This bottom-up approach is called the
be defined as abe defined as a ROBOTROBOT
designed to look and actdesigned to look and act
An Andro Humanoid is anAn Andro Humanoid is an
anthropomorphic robotanthropomorphic robot
- Looks like a human- Looks like a human
- Known as "humanoids"- Known as "humanoids"
Basis of Androids:
• High demand to do tedious and
• Advent of faster and cheaper
• Make robots move and "think" to look
more like humans
• Psycological factors
These facts have gave birth to
Taking the example of KISMET, an android with
facial expressions and emotions built at MIT,
by Dr Cynthia Brenzeal.
• Had head with jaws
• Eyes had color CCD camera
• Small motors to move facial
From humanoids to androids. The first robot (the left end) is
Robovie II developed by ATR Intelligent Robotics and
Communications Laboratories. The second is Wakamaru
developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co. Ltd. The third is a
child android, while the fourth is the master of the child android.
The framework of android science.
The approach from robotics tries to build very humanlike
robots based on knowledge from cognitive science. The
approach from cognitive
science uses the robot for verifying hypotheses for
understanding humans. We call this cross-interdisciplinary
framework android science.
DEVELOPMENT OF ANDROIDS
The main difference between robot-like robots and androids is
The appearance of an android is realized by making a copy of
an existing person.
The technology to recreating a human as an
android has been accomplished to some extent;
however it has not yet been perfected. The
• Details of the wetness of the eyes.
• More flexible and robust skin material
Details of the wetness of the eyes
The wet surface of the eye and the outer corners are difficult
to recreate with silicon, more improvement is required in this
Although the android has a mechanism for blinking and the
eyeballs are perfect copies, we are aware of the differences
from a real human.
More flexible and robust skin material
The current silicon used in this trial manufacturing is sufficient
for recreating the texture of the skin.
However, it loses flexibility after one or two years and its
elasticity is insufficient for large joint movements.
Mechanisms for humanlike movements
Adult android developed in cooperation with
The actuators can represent unconscious movements of the
chest from breathing in addition to conscious large
movements of the head and arms.
Facial expressions of the android
Furthermore, the android has a function for generating facial
expression that is important for interactions with humans.
Figure shows several examples of facial expression. For this
purpose, the android uses 13 of the 42 actuators.
Toward very humanlike movement
Marker positions on the master (right)
and android (left).
Distributed sensor system
* Meeting of Engineering and scientific approaches is
known as Turing test
* The Turing Test is a proposal for a test of a machine’s
ability to demonstrate intelligence.
COGNITIVE STUDIES USING ANDROIDS
Total Turing test
Total Turing test.
An Engineer designs an Android Similar to his
Possibility of an android as a human
The adult android and a subject.
• Perform automated tasks to save on labor
• One of the factors contributing to higher levels of productivity
Personalization and Ease of Use:
• Better acceptance by humans
• Provides personal touch
• Can be used for domestic mundane tasks
• Self explanatory repair mechanism
• Android science is expected to be a very
fundamental research where principles of
Human-Human communications and Human-
Robot communications are studied.
• The Android System in this paper has also