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Useful vocabulary for the IGCSE examination

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This is a worksheet I prepared to revise useful vocabulary for the IGCSE - English as a Second Language examination.

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Useful vocabulary for the IGCSE examination

  1. 1. USEFUL VOCABULARY FOR THE IIGCSE EXAM (ESL) USEFUL VOCABULARY FOR THE GCSE EXAM (ESL) CAUSE ((verrb)) CAUSE ve b EFFECT ((noun)) EFFECT noun CERTAIIN CERTA N lead to: The research could lead to a impact on: His work has had an have no doubt: I have no doubt that a cure for many serious illnesses. enormous impact on the study of cure for the disease will one day be result in: The fire resulted in damage genetics. found. to their property. influence on: In his book, he there is no doubt: There is no doubt be responsible for: He was examines the influence of the media that violence on our TV screens does responsible for the accident. on our society. influence children. affect: (v) The disease affects women more than men. influence: (v) She has influenced him a lot. IINCREASE ((verrb)) NCREASE ve b DECREASE ((verrb)) DECREASE ve b HAVE FUN – ENJOY HAVE FUN – ENJOY increase by (percent): Last year, the decrease by (percent): The average have fun number of burglaries increased by 15 rainfall has decreased by around 30 it is/was fun: Our trip was great fun. percent. percent. enjoyable go up: Last month unemployment go down: The percentage of fat in our exciting went up from 1.6 million to just over diets has gone down. thrilling: very exciting 1.7 million. fall: The number of tigers in the wild enjoy yourself / ourselves / himself grow: The volume of traffic on our has fallen to just over 10,000. have a good/great/wonderful time roads continues to grow. drop: At night, the temperature drops have the time of your life double/triple/quadruple: Since 1950, to minus 20 degrees. the number of people dying from cancer has almost doubled. LIIKE – NOT LIIKE L KE – NO T L KE ADVANT AGES // DIISADV.. ADVANT AGES D SADV GOOD GOOD EXCELLENT EXCELLENT be keen on sb/sth: I’m keen on tennis. benefit Convenient oustanding be into sth: She’s into music. drawback: disadvantage beneficial superb: He is a can’t stand suitable superb dancer. AM AZIING AM AZ NG FUNNY ((humorrous)) FUNNY humo ous BORIING BO R NG breathtaking amusing dull impressive hilarious tedious striking monotonous stunning astonishing BAD BAD VERY BAD VERY BAD BEAUTIIFUL ((peoplle)) BEAUT FUL peop e inappropriate awful attractive unsuitable disgusting good-looking disappointing hideous gorgeous shocking striking terrible stunning BEAUTIIFUL ((pllaces)) BEAUT FUL p aces UGLY ((peoplle & pllaces)) UGLY peop e & p aces VERY HOT // COLD VERY HOT COLD breathtaking unattractive freezing stunning unpleasant boiling awe-inspiring unsightly filthy: very dirty (More vocabulary on page 2) striking spectacular spotless: very clean VERY VERY A LO T A LO T NOT M ANY NOT M ANY VERY MUCH // NOT VERY MUCH VERY MUCH NOT VERY MUCH absolutely 1 a great number of + a few / few + countable noun dramatically: Your life changes extremely countable noun: A great a small number of + countable dramatically at university. highly number of students. a little / little + uncountable significantly incredibly a great deal of+uncount: A a small amount of + uncount slightly: She's slightly taller than her remarkably great deal of pressure. sister. IGCSE | Useful Vocabulary
  2. 2. PERSONALIITY ADJECTIIVES PERSONAL TY ADJECT VES HEALTH HEALTH ambitious health care systems cheerful: happy health service easy-going private medicine creative – imaginative health insurance outgoing - unsociable alternative medicine realistic - unrealistic traditional medicine reliable - unreliable acupuncture sensible - insensible X-ray sensitive - insensitive blood test sympathetic individualistic ENVIIRONMENTAL IISSUES ENV RONMENTAL SSUES WEATHER WEATHER global warming warm climate change: changes in the weather around the world, boiling which result in much higher or lower temperatures, violent mild: mild winter weather is pleasant because it is not as storms, floods, or droughts cold as it usually is. It seems quite mild for February. the greenhouse effect humid acid rain: rain that contains pollution from factories, power cool stations etc, which causes damage to forests chilly: a little cold, in a way that makes you feel the hole in the ozone layer uncomfortable hazardous / toxic waste: dangerous waste materials, for freezing: extremely cold. example produced by industries, hospitals etc drizzle: light rain. pesticides: they can be harmful when they are absorbed shower: a short period of rain. Heavy showers (=when a into crops or the soil: Farmers are being asked to reduce lot of rain falls for short periods). their use of pesticides. hail/stones: frozen raindrops that fall as small balls of ice. GM foods: genetically modified foods There were frequent showers of rain and hail. organic foods frost: ice that looks white and powdery and covers things fossil fuels: fuels such as coal or oil. Burning these fuels when the temperature is very cold. The grass and trees causes a lot of carbon gases to be released into the were white with frost. atmosphere icy: covered in ice and very slippery. Be careful - the roads fumes: harmful gas or smoke, for example from cars, are icy this morning. factories etc, which can damage people's health overcast: if the sky is overcast, it is very cloudy and dark, exhaust fumes (=from cars) and there will probably be rain. endangered species fog: thick cloudy air near the ground that is very difficult to extinction: The white rhino is close to extinction. see through. Thick/dense fog: Dense fog is making soil erosion driving conditions difficult on many roads. foggy: deforestation adjective. floods gust of wind: (=when the wind suddenly blows strongly) A droughts sudden gust of wind blew the paper out of his hand. environmentally friendly/eco-friendly: environmentally- breeze: a gentle pleasant wind. friendly products or methods do not cause harm to the gale: a very strong wind. The fence was blown down in environment: a campaign to encourage people to use the gale last night. environmentally-friendly forms of transport thunderstorm: a storm where there is a lot of thunder and recycle (v) / recycling (n) / recyclable (adj) lightning. solar power/wind power: Solar power is a renewable blizzard: a storm with a lot of snow and strong winds. resource. hurricane - tornado: a small but very powerful twisting environmentalist: someone who is concerned about mass of air that causes a lot of damage. Tornadoes are protecting the environment most common in the central area of the US. environmental group ECONOMIIC AND SOCIIAL IISSUES ECONOM C AND SOC AL SSUES EDUCATIION EDUCAT ON discrimination homeless people graduate from school exploitation unemployment degree: She has a degree in economics. inequality vandalism distance learning famine violent crime e-learning: a method of study that involves using the malnutrition mugging Internet and communicating with teachers using email 2 overpopulation rape grant: an amount of money given to someone, especially begging capital punishment by the government, to help pay for their education, drug abuse fine research inequality scholarship IGCSE | Useful Vocabulary
  3. 3. W O RK W O RK THE MEDIIA THE MED A employee: someone who is paid to work for someone the media: all the organizations, such as television, radio, else: a government employee and newspapers, that provide news and information for the worker: someone who does a job, especially low-ranking public, or the people who do this work: The event attracted job: a conflict between workers and management interest from the national media. co-worker: someone who works with you and has a similar the press: newspapers and news magazines, or the position. people who work for them: The case was widely reported part-time job / work part-time in the press. full-time job / work full-time journalist: someone who writes news reports for self-employed: working for yourself and not employed by a newspapers, magazines, television, or radio. company: reporter: someone whose job is to write about news job opportunities: Big cities offer good job opportunities. events for a newspaper, or to tell people about them on job satisfaction: the enjoyment you get from doing your television or on the radio. job: Being a teacher gives me high job satisfaction. correspondent job security: how permanent your job is likely to be. broadcast (verb) It was in 1954 that BBC TV broadcast its promotion: a move to a more important job or position in a first national news summary, introduced by Mr Richard company or organization: a job with good prospects for Baker. promotion cable television be promoted satellite television bonus money added to someone's wages, especially as a paparazzi reward for good work: Every worker in this company celebrity receives an annual bonus. star pay rise: an increase in the amount of money you are paid personality for doing your job. become famous / become well-known work overtime: Nurses often have to do a lot of overtime. rise to fame well-paid job / badly-paid job challenging job pleasant / satisfying job stressful job FIILMS AND BOOKS F LMS AND BOOKS tiring job blockbuster: a book or film that is very good or successful. form/start a new company box-office hit: a successful film, play or actor who many set up a business people go to see. apply for a job gripping plot / story: very exciting and interesting. be/go on strike: to refuse to continue working because of fascinating plot / story an argument with an employer about working conditions, entertaining plot / story pay levels or job losses. hilarious plot / story retire: to leave your job or stop working because of old age tedious plot / story: boring or ill health. humourless plot / story resign from a job: decide to leave a job. slow-moving plot / story be fired from a job depressing plot / story be unemployed unimaginative plot / story be out of work/a job: be unemployed. likeable characters convincing characters / acting disappointing acting stunning special effects / photography THE CIITY T HE C T Y GIIVIING OPIINIIONS G V NG O P N O NS facilities: things that are provided in a place in order to In my opinion/In my view make particular services or activities available: The It seems to me that facilities at the hotel were excellent -- tennis courts, I believe swimming pool, several bars and a good restaurant. As far as I’m concerned pedestrian: someone who is walking, especially along a street or other place used by cars curb: the raised edge of a road, between where people can walk and cars can drive. pavement: a hard level surface or path at the side of a 3 road for people to walk on road sign / street sign traffic lights traffic jam(s) IGCSE | Useful Vocabulary

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