USEFUL VOCABULARY FOR THE IIGCSE EXAM (ESL)
USEFUL VOCABULARY FOR THE GCSE EXAM (ESL)
CAUSE ve b EFFECT ((noun))
EFFECT noun CERTAIIN
lead to: The research could lead to a impact on: His work has had an have no doubt: I have no doubt that a
cure for many serious illnesses. enormous impact on the study of cure for the disease will one day be
result in: The fire resulted in damage genetics. found.
to their property. influence on: In his book, he there is no doubt: There is no doubt
be responsible for: He was examines the influence of the media that violence on our TV screens does
responsible for the accident. on our society. influence children.
affect: (v) The disease affects women
more than men.
influence: (v) She has influenced him
NCREASE ve b DECREASE ((verrb))
DECREASE ve b HAVE FUN – ENJOY
HAVE FUN – ENJOY
increase by (percent): Last year, the decrease by (percent): The average have fun
number of burglaries increased by 15 rainfall has decreased by around 30 it is/was fun: Our trip was great fun.
percent. percent. enjoyable
go up: Last month unemployment go down: The percentage of fat in our exciting
went up from 1.6 million to just over diets has gone down. thrilling: very exciting
1.7 million. fall: The number of tigers in the wild enjoy yourself / ourselves / himself
grow: The volume of traffic on our has fallen to just over 10,000. have a good/great/wonderful time
roads continues to grow. drop: At night, the temperature drops have the time of your life
double/triple/quadruple: Since 1950, to minus 20 degrees.
the number of people dying from
cancer has almost doubled.
LIIKE – NOT LIIKE
L KE – NO T L KE ADVANT AGES // DIISADV..
ADVANT AGES D SADV GOOD
be keen on sb/sth: I’m keen on tennis. benefit Convenient oustanding
be into sth: She’s into music. drawback: disadvantage beneficial superb: He is a
can’t stand suitable superb dancer.
AM AZ NG FUNNY ((humorrous))
FUNNY humo ous BORIING
BO R NG
breathtaking amusing dull
impressive hilarious tedious
BAD VERY BAD
VERY BAD BEAUTIIFUL ((peoplle))
BEAUT FUL peop e
inappropriate awful attractive
unsuitable disgusting good-looking
disappointing hideous gorgeous
BEAUT FUL p aces UGLY ((peoplle & pllaces))
UGLY peop e & p aces VERY HOT // COLD
VERY HOT COLD
breathtaking unattractive freezing
stunning unpleasant boiling
filthy: very dirty (More vocabulary on page 2)
spotless: very clean
VERY A LO T
A LO T NOT M ANY
NOT M ANY VERY MUCH // NOT VERY MUCH
VERY MUCH NOT VERY MUCH
a great number of + a few / few + countable noun dramatically: Your life changes
extremely countable noun: A great a small number of + countable dramatically at university.
highly number of students. a little / little + uncountable significantly
incredibly a great deal of+uncount: A a small amount of + uncount slightly: She's slightly taller than her
remarkably great deal of pressure. sister.
IGCSE | Useful Vocabulary
PERSONAL TY ADJECT VES HEALTH
ambitious health care systems
cheerful: happy health service
easy-going private medicine
creative – imaginative health insurance
outgoing - unsociable alternative medicine
realistic - unrealistic traditional medicine
reliable - unreliable acupuncture
sensible - insensible X-ray
sensitive - insensitive blood test
ENV RONMENTAL SSUES WEATHER
global warming warm
climate change: changes in the weather around the world, boiling
which result in much higher or lower temperatures, violent mild: mild winter weather is pleasant because it is not as
storms, floods, or droughts cold as it usually is. It seems quite mild for February.
the greenhouse effect humid
acid rain: rain that contains pollution from factories, power cool
stations etc, which causes damage to forests chilly: a little cold, in a way that makes you feel
the hole in the ozone layer uncomfortable
hazardous / toxic waste: dangerous waste materials, for freezing: extremely cold.
example produced by industries, hospitals etc drizzle: light rain.
pesticides: they can be harmful when they are absorbed shower: a short period of rain. Heavy showers (=when a
into crops or the soil: Farmers are being asked to reduce lot of rain falls for short periods).
their use of pesticides. hail/stones: frozen raindrops that fall as small balls of ice.
GM foods: genetically modified foods There were frequent showers of rain and hail.
organic foods frost: ice that looks white and powdery and covers things
fossil fuels: fuels such as coal or oil. Burning these fuels when the temperature is very cold. The grass and trees
causes a lot of carbon gases to be released into the were white with frost.
atmosphere icy: covered in ice and very slippery. Be careful - the roads
fumes: harmful gas or smoke, for example from cars, are icy this morning.
factories etc, which can damage people's health overcast: if the sky is overcast, it is very cloudy and dark,
exhaust fumes (=from cars) and there will probably be rain.
endangered species fog: thick cloudy air near the ground that is very difficult to
extinction: The white rhino is close to extinction. see through. Thick/dense fog: Dense fog is making
soil erosion driving conditions difficult on many roads. foggy:
floods gust of wind: (=when the wind suddenly blows strongly) A
droughts sudden gust of wind blew the paper out of his hand.
environmentally friendly/eco-friendly: environmentally- breeze: a gentle pleasant wind.
friendly products or methods do not cause harm to the gale: a very strong wind. The fence was blown down in
environment: a campaign to encourage people to use the gale last night.
environmentally-friendly forms of transport thunderstorm: a storm where there is a lot of thunder and
recycle (v) / recycling (n) / recyclable (adj) lightning.
solar power/wind power: Solar power is a renewable blizzard: a storm with a lot of snow and strong winds.
resource. hurricane - tornado: a small but very powerful twisting
environmentalist: someone who is concerned about mass of air that causes a lot of damage. Tornadoes are
protecting the environment most common in the central area of the US.
ECONOMIIC AND SOCIIAL IISSUES
ECONOM C AND SOC AL SSUES EDUCATIION
discrimination homeless people graduate from school
exploitation unemployment degree: She has a degree in economics.
inequality vandalism distance learning
famine violent crime e-learning: a method of study that involves using the
malnutrition mugging Internet and communicating with teachers using email 2
overpopulation rape grant: an amount of money given to someone, especially
begging capital punishment by the government, to help pay for their education,
drug abuse fine research
IGCSE | Useful Vocabulary
W O RK
W O RK THE MEDIIA
THE MED A
employee: someone who is paid to work for someone the media: all the organizations, such as television, radio,
else: a government employee and newspapers, that provide news and information for the
worker: someone who does a job, especially low-ranking public, or the people who do this work: The event attracted
job: a conflict between workers and management interest from the national media.
co-worker: someone who works with you and has a similar the press: newspapers and news magazines, or the
position. people who work for them: The case was widely reported
part-time job / work part-time in the press.
full-time job / work full-time journalist: someone who writes news reports for
self-employed: working for yourself and not employed by a newspapers, magazines, television, or radio.
company: reporter: someone whose job is to write about news
job opportunities: Big cities offer good job opportunities. events for a newspaper, or to tell people about them on
job satisfaction: the enjoyment you get from doing your television or on the radio.
job: Being a teacher gives me high job satisfaction. correspondent
job security: how permanent your job is likely to be. broadcast (verb) It was in 1954 that BBC TV broadcast its
promotion: a move to a more important job or position in a first national news summary, introduced by Mr Richard
company or organization: a job with good prospects for Baker.
promotion cable television
be promoted satellite television
bonus money added to someone's wages, especially as a paparazzi
reward for good work: Every worker in this company celebrity
receives an annual bonus. star
pay rise: an increase in the amount of money you are paid personality
for doing your job. become famous / become well-known
work overtime: Nurses often have to do a lot of overtime. rise to fame
well-paid job / badly-paid job
pleasant / satisfying job
stressful job FIILMS AND BOOKS
F LMS AND BOOKS
blockbuster: a book or film that is very good or successful.
form/start a new company box-office hit: a successful film, play or actor who many
set up a business people go to see.
apply for a job gripping plot / story: very exciting and interesting.
be/go on strike: to refuse to continue working because of fascinating plot / story
an argument with an employer about working conditions, entertaining plot / story
pay levels or job losses. hilarious plot / story
retire: to leave your job or stop working because of old age tedious plot / story: boring
or ill health. humourless plot / story
resign from a job: decide to leave a job. slow-moving plot / story
be fired from a job depressing plot / story
be unemployed unimaginative plot / story
be out of work/a job: be unemployed. likeable characters
convincing characters / acting
stunning special effects / photography
T HE C T Y GIIVIING OPIINIIONS
G V NG O P N O NS
facilities: things that are provided in a place in order to In my opinion/In my view
make particular services or activities available: The It seems to me that
facilities at the hotel were excellent -- tennis courts, I believe
swimming pool, several bars and a good restaurant. As far as I’m concerned
pedestrian: someone who is walking, especially along a
street or other place used by cars
curb: the raised edge of a road, between where people
can walk and cars can drive.
pavement: a hard level surface or path at the side of a 3
road for people to walk on
road sign / street sign
IGCSE | Useful Vocabulary