The cardiovascular system HCIS


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The cardiovascular system HCIS

  1. 1. The Circulatory System
  2. 2. The Circulatory System <ul><li>While small organisms may rely on diffusion and osmosis, large organisms need a transport system to distribute food and oxygen and to collect wastes efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>The mammalian circulatory system is made up of blood, blood vessels and the heart </li></ul>
  3. 3. Blood
  4. 4. Red Blood Cells <ul><li>Produced in the red bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>The cells lose their nuclei becoming tiny, circular, discs. </li></ul><ul><li>The biconcave structure made up of spongy cytoplasm in an elastic cell membrane is extremely flexible and enables them to squeeze through tiny spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>The cytoplasm contains heamoglobin (protein plus iron) which gives blood its red colour </li></ul><ul><li> High O 2 content </li></ul><ul><li>Heamoglobin + oxygen oxyheamoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>(darker red) Low O 2 content (bright red) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Red Blood Cells <ul><li>Each cell lives for about 4 months. </li></ul><ul><li>It breaks down to give a yellow pigment (removed in the bile) and iron (stored in the liver). </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 million red blood cells are replaced each day! </li></ul>
  6. 6. White Blood Cells <ul><li>Made in the bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>They are larger than red cells and in the ratio of 1 wbc:600 rbc. </li></ul><ul><li>Many white blood cells require development and maturation in spleen, lymph nodes and thymus. </li></ul>
  7. 8. White blood cells <ul><li>Majority are phagocytes </li></ul><ul><li>They move by the flowing of cytoplasm and can squeeze out of blood capillaries into surrounding tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>They collect at wounds, ingest (engulf) and digest bacteria and cell debris. </li></ul>
  8. 9. White blood cells <ul><li>Lymphocytes produce antibodies against antigens (any substance-usually foreign - that stimulates antibody production). </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies (a kind of protein) are specific in their action eg flu antibodies only effective against flu virus </li></ul>
  9. 10. Lymphocytes <ul><li>Antibodies are released into the blood and </li></ul><ul><li>♦ destroy antigens </li></ul><ul><li>♦ become attached to their surface so </li></ul><ul><li>that they are more easily ingested </li></ul><ul><li>by phagocytes or </li></ul><ul><li>♦ clump antigens together so that they </li></ul><ul><li>cannot function. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Lymphocytes <ul><li>Lymphocytes also produce anti-toxins (chemicals that neutralize poisonous substances produced by bacteria). </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes are produced quickly when the body is being attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Immunity- White blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen and thymus make up the immune system. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Types of Immunity <ul><li>Innate immunity: from mother ’s milk to baby. Passive immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Natural acquired immunity: eg person who has had chicken pox unlikely to get it again. Active </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial acquired immunity: vaccination. Active </li></ul><ul><li>Passive immunity: Antibodies extracted from plasma and used to treat patients at risk </li></ul>
  12. 13. Organ Transplants <ul><li>Immune response protects our body against bacteria, viruses and any foreign proteins </li></ul><ul><li>All cells carry antigens (proteins) on their surface. Different people have different antigens and so have different ‘tissue types’ (cf fingerprints). Close relatives may have similar but not identical tissue types </li></ul><ul><li>In transplant surgery, donated tissue is foreign and attacked and destroyed by white blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Immunosuppressive drug , eg Cyclosporine A, must be given to transplant patients to suppress their immune response. This protects the transplant but leaves him vulnerable to attack by disease organisms </li></ul>
  13. 14. Platelets <ul><li>Fragments of cells budded off in the bone marrow. They clot blood over wounds </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Platelets and damaged cells produce thrombokinase , an enzyme that changes the protein prothrombin into thrombin . This enzyme converts soluble fibrinogen into fibrin , which forms a network of fibres across wound. </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cells trapped and forms clot ( Ca++ and vitamin K needed) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Haemophilia? <ul><li>Haemophilia , a heredity disease has an impaired blood clotting mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Defect impairs the production of the plasma protein, fibrinogen . </li></ul>
  16. 17. Plasma <ul><li>Mainly water with </li></ul><ul><li>♦ many mineral ions: K+, Na+, Ca++, Cl-, </li></ul><ul><li>HCO3- </li></ul><ul><li>♦ proteins: fibrinogen, albumins, globulins, </li></ul><ul><li>prothrombin </li></ul><ul><li>♦ food substances: glucose, aa, fats </li></ul><ul><li>♦ wastes : urea </li></ul><ul><li>♦ hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Composition kept constant by liver and kidneys </li></ul>
  17. 18. The Heart
  18. 19. The Heart <ul><li>A pump made of cardiac muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Two atria , two ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>pulmonary vein (oxygenated blood from lungs) </li></ul><ul><li>vena cava (deoxygenated blood from body) </li></ul><ul><li>aorta </li></ul><ul><li>pulmonary artery </li></ul><ul><li>valves </li></ul><ul><li>tendons (usually join muscles to bone) </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Heart
  20. 21. The Heart
  21. 22. Heart Valves
  22. 23. Tricuspid Valve
  23. 24. Heart <ul><li>Cardiac muscle – never tired </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Hole in the heart? </li></ul>
  25. 26. Double Circulation in Mammals <ul><li>High pressure systemic circulation (thicker wall of left ventricle compared to right ventricle) and </li></ul><ul><li>lower pressure pulmonary circulation </li></ul>
  26. 27. Double Circulation
  27. 31. Heart beat <ul><li>The two atria contract together and then the two ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle has a natural rhythmic contraction rate and a ‘pacemaker’; keeps heart rate at 50-100 beats/minute </li></ul><ul><li>Heartbeat varies with sex, exercise, age, emotions </li></ul>
  28. 32. Blood Pressure <ul><li>Pumping action of the heart produces blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Varies with age, health </li></ul>
  29. 33. Coronary heart disease <ul><li>Deposits of fats may be laid down in wall of arteries – atheroma . </li></ul><ul><li>Patches become more numerous and spread with age, small blood clots may occur on inner surface of arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced blood flow causes pain in chest – angina - especially during exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Atheroma may block important artery eg coronary arteries, producing a heart attack or coronary thrombosis . (A thrombosis in brain produces a stroke) </li></ul>
  30. 34. Coronary Arteries
  31. 35. Artherosclerosis and THrombosis
  32. 37. Causes of CHD <ul><li>Smoking. Smokers 2 to 3 times more likely to die from heart attack. CO and other chemicals in cigarette smoke may damage the lining of arteries and allow atheroma formation </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty diet. Atheroma contains cholesterol, lipids and protein. Eating animal fats lead to raised cholesterol levels </li></ul><ul><li>Stress. Stress raises blood pressure which may increase atheroma formation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of exercise. Regular, vigorous exercise reduces the chances of a heart attack by improving coronary blood flow </li></ul>
  33. 38. Blood Vessels
  34. 39. Blood Vessels -Arteries <ul><li>Carry blood away from heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Walls with elastic and muscle fibres; can withstand blood flow under high pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flow in pulses or waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries with oxygenated blood except pulmonary arteries </li></ul>
  35. 40. Blood Vessels - Arterioles <ul><li>Arterioles are smaller arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>When muscle in arteriole wall contract, arterioles narrow and restrict blood flow so that blood flow to different parts of body controlled </li></ul>
  36. 41. Blood Vessels
  37. 42. TS Artery and Vein
  38. 43. Blood Vessels - Capillaries <ul><li>Tiny vessels, wall one cell thick and partially permeable. </li></ul><ul><li>Form dense network in body. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure forces part of plasma through walls producing tissue fluid which bathes all living cells and supplies them with food and oxygen. Seeps back into capillaries with wastes </li></ul>
  39. 44. Capillary
  40. 46. Blood Vessels - Veins <ul><li>Carry blood to heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Larger diameter than arteries, walls thinner, less elastic and muscular. </li></ul><ul><li>Valves present to prevent backflow. Blood pressure is steady and low. </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction of skeletal muscles around veins squeezes the thin-walled veins and pushes the blood along. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry deoxygenated blood except pulmonary veins - less food, more CO 2 </li></ul>
  41. 47. Movement of Blood in Vein
  42. 48. <ul><li>Venules are small veins </li></ul>
  43. 49. Valves in Veins
  44. 50. Varicose Veins
  45. 52. Lymphatic system <ul><li>Not all tissue fluid return to capillaries. Some enter blind-ended, thin walled lymphatic vessels . (Lacteals in small intestine part of lymphatic system) </li></ul><ul><li>Valves present </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of lymph helped by contraction of skeletal muscles around them. Lymph similar to tissue fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>Rejoin blood circulation in thorax. </li></ul>
  46. 53. The Lymphatic System
  47. 54. Lymphatic System
  48. 55. Blood and Lymph
  49. 56. Lymphatic system <ul><li>Swellings or lymph nodes store lymphocytes, some phagocytes, filter off disease organisms from lymph. </li></ul>