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Who let the drop out? An alternative perspective on completion in open education

Presentation provided to the "Online, Open and Flexible Higher Education Conference (EADTU Annual Conference)", 29 October 2015, Hagen, Germany.

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Who let the drop out? An alternative perspective on completion in open education

  1. 1. sProf. Dr. Marco Kalz Chair for Open Education Faculty Management, Science and Technology & Welten Institute Open University of the Netherlands DROP EADTU Conference 2015 29 October Fernuniversität in Hagen Germany
  2. 2. Who let the drop out? 160 000 enrolled 20 000 completed
  3. 3. Who let the drop out?
  4. 4. Who let the drop out?
  5. 5. Who let the drop out?
  6. 6. Research about MOOCs • 166 scientific publications in 6 years • TEL: 3500 publications in 10 years (Kalz & Specht, 2011)
  7. 7. Jordan, 2015 Who let the drop out?
  8. 8. Traditional completion perspective Completing learners are all learners who participate in all learning activities or even receive a certificate
  9. 9. What do the learners say? Read more at OpenCulture
  10. 10. A […] more important limitation […] is the tendency to ignore the perspective of the individual […]Such definitions of dropout […] imply connotations of inferiority […] of the individual dropping out. Tinto & Cullen, 1973
  11. 11. Reich, 2014
  12. 12. Categories of intentions in OE Reich, 2014
  13. 13. Categories of intentions in OE Key results by Reich (2014)
  14. 14. Categories of intentions in OE Source: Phil Hill
  15. 15. Kalz, Kreijns, Walhout, Castano-Munoz, Espasa & Tovar, 2015 A new measurement model for OE
  16. 16. MOOCs are open, but…
  17. 17. … there are hidden filters and gates!
  18. 18. What has an impact on the IBG in open education? Implementation Intentions SDL/SRL IT Skills Intention- Behaviour- Gap
  19. 19. Assess the task Evaluate Strength and Weaknesses Plan Apply strategies Monitor progress Reflect & Adjust Individual Learning Dispositions Ambrose et al., 2010 Self-directed (regulated) learning
  20. 20. Self-directed (regulated) learning Prior experiences with SRL and technology impact self-efficacy and motivation SRL in a technology-rich context requires step-wise introduction and support Lee, Tsai, Chai, & Koh (2015)
  21. 21. Self-directed (regulated) learning
  22. 22. Consistency of intention and behaviour Consistent Inconsistent Inclined actors Intend to act and act Inclined abstainers Intend to act, but do not act Disclined actors Don’t intend to act and don’t act Disclined abstainers Don’t intend to act, but act Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006
  23. 23. Goal intentions Goal intentions are not enough!
  24. 24. Goal intentions predecisional preactional actional postactional Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006 Strength of goal intention Initiate goal- directed behaviour Shielding Review of quality and quantity of achievement
  25. 25. Goal intentions Additional variable Time interval between setting of goal intention and goal- related activity
  26. 26. “Forming a goal intention does not prepare people sufficiently for dealing with self-regulatory problems in initiating, maintaining, disengaging from, or over-extending oneself in goal striving.” Goal intentions Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006
  27. 27. Implementation intentions Implementation intentions define the • when, • where and • how of goal striving. Meta review (94 studies, n=8000) Effect size d = .65
  28. 28. Implementation intentions “When situation X arises, I will perform response Y!”
  29. 29. Implementation intentions “I will reserve each Tuesday afternoon to learn at my desk ” “When I cannot learn on Tuesday at home, I will skip football on Saturday to learn then” “I will connect each morning for an hour to fellow student of the MOOC to discuss questions and assignments”
  30. 30. Implementation intentions Implementation intentions Imply the selection of an effective goal-directed behaviour…it is assumed that the mental representation of this situation becomes highly activated and more accessible. Gollwitzer, 1999
  31. 31. Implementation intentions Impact of implementation intentions on IBG Do learners with implementation intentions in MOOCs are more likely to reach their goals? Impact of contextualized cues on implementation intentions Can situational cues support learners in MOOCs to develop implementation intentions?
  32. 32. MOOCKnowledge: European cross-provider data collection of background and experiences of MOOC learners
  33. 33. MOOC providers
  34. 34. PhD SRL Skills PhD Scalability PhD Motivation PhDOrganisational innovation Fundamental research line Accompagnyingresearchline SOONER:
  35. 35. Invitation
  36. 36. Thank you! @mkalz