Structuraon
of
Personal
  Learning
Environments              Dr.
Marco
Kalz           Open
University
of
the
Netherlands
Marco
Kalz•   Assistant
Professor
at
the
Centre
for
Learning
Sciences
    and
Technologies
(CELSTEC)
of
the
Open
Universit...
Dr. Marco Kalz Centre for Learning    Sciences and     TechnologiesOpen University of the     Netherlands  marco.kalz@ou.n...
Structure of this talk•   PLE as empowerment concept•   Structurational view of PLE•   Operationalization of the theory•  ...
Criticisms of the LMS
Criticisms of the LMS                        Schneider, 2003
Criticisms of the LMS• Administrative Functions• Controlled Cohorts• Teacher with all rights• Prepared courses• Learners c...
Criticism of the LMS
by Steve Snodgrass@Flickr
Early PLE concepts                          !Werdmuller 2004
Early PLE concepts
Early PLE concepts                        !Wilson 2005
Turner 2008
A working definition“Personal Learning Environments are learningenvironments where learners can integratedistributed infor...
PLE vs. the rest
The proceedings
Some statistics    Case studies   Theoretical/Technical papers   Empirical papers3                  30                    ...
A critical look
Problems for empirical PLE studies• Complex relationship between technology,  learners and learning effects• How to avoid ...
A conversation
A conversation
Structuration Theory
Structuration Theory     Rose, 2001
Structuration Theory
Adaptive Structuration Theory„Technology properties and contextual contingencies can playcritical roles in the outcomes of...
A structurational perspective of technology use                                             !     Orlikowski & Robey, 1991
Theoretical foundation•   Structuration theory
Perspective a.) Technology as a product„Designers incorporate some of these structures into thetechnology; the structures ...
Perspective a.) PLE frameworks          http://taolin.fbk.eu
Perspective a.) PLE frameworks          http://taolin.fbk.eu
Perspective a.) Artefact vs. use       Orlikowski & Robey, 1991
Perspective b.) PLE as a medium for human                  action
Perspective b.) Facilities• Why do PLE users choose specific  functionalities and not others?• How do learners integrate t...
Perspective b.) Norms• Which normative framing influences the structuration  process?• Do norms that learner know from oth...
Perspective b.) Interpretative schemes• What are assumptions &  expectations of PLE users?• Which prior experiences do the...
Perspective c.) Institutional context of usage     University of the Basque Country/Casquero 2008
Perspective c.) Institutional context of usage
Perspective d.) Consequences of PLE usage• What are the (unintended) consequences  of using a PLE?• How does the attitude ...
Operationalizing structurational PLE studies             Process data
Langley, 1999
Operationalizing structurational PLE studies Pozzebon & Pinsonneault, 2001
Operationalizing structurational PLE studies        Pozzebon & Pinsonneault, 2001
Research challenges• The competent actor• Which effects are we analyzing (macro-level of  learning or micro-level)?• Gener...
PLE
PLE      Research
PLE                      ResearchStructurationTheory
PLE                        ResearchStructurationTheory          Structuration                Theory & IT
PLE                              ResearchStructurationTheory                Structuration                      Theory & IT...
PLE                              ResearchStructurationTheory                Structuration                      Theory & IT...
PLE                              ResearchStructurationTheory                Structuration                      Theory & IT...
PLE                                             Empirical PLE                              Research       studiesStructura...
Thank you for your attention                 Dr. Marco Kalz                 marco.kalz@ou.nl                 http://twitte...
Structuration of Personal Learning Environments
Structuration of Personal Learning Environments
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Structuration of Personal Learning Environments

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Lecture given in the context of the MUPPLE lecture series at The Open University. If you want to download the slides please see here http://hdl.handle.net/1820/3433.

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  • Structuration of Personal Learning Environments

    1. 1. Structuraon
of
Personal
 Learning
Environments Dr.
Marco
Kalz Open
University
of
the
Netherlands
    2. 2. Marco
Kalz• Assistant
Professor
at
the
Centre
for
Learning
Sciences
 and
Technologies
(CELSTEC)
of
the
Open
University
of
 the
Netherlands
(OUNL)• In
2001
he
worked
as
a
consultant
in
one
of
the
first
 professional
content
syndicaon
companies
in
Europe.
• From
2002
‐
2003
he
was
involved
in
one
of
Germany’s
 mobile
campus
iniaves
where
he
was
researching
the
 educaLonal
potenLal
of
mobile
devices
in
tradiLonal
 teaching
formats.
• From
2004
‐
2006
he
worked
in
EducaLonal
Technology
 group
at
Fernuniversität
in
Hagen,
Germany’s
distance
 teaching
university,
where
hew
was
involved
in
the
 concepLon
of
two
new
study
programs
for
educaLonal
 technology.
• Since
February
2006
Marco
works
at
OUNL
with
a
 research
focus
on
new
forms
of
assessment
and
the
use
 of
social
soDware
and
social
media
for
lifelong
 competence
development.
    3. 3. Dr. Marco Kalz Centre for Learning Sciences and TechnologiesOpen University of the Netherlands marco.kalz@ou.nlhttp://twitter.com/mkalz
    4. 4. Structure of this talk• PLE as empowerment concept• Structurational view of PLE• Operationalization of the theory• Research challenges
    5. 5. Criticisms of the LMS
    6. 6. Criticisms of the LMS Schneider, 2003
    7. 7. Criticisms of the LMS• Administrative Functions• Controlled Cohorts• Teacher with all rights• Prepared courses• Learners consume• Limited communication• No design freedom• Instruction Schneider, 2003
    8. 8. Criticism of the LMS
    9. 9. by Steve Snodgrass@Flickr
    10. 10. Early PLE concepts !Werdmuller 2004
    11. 11. Early PLE concepts
    12. 12. Early PLE concepts !Wilson 2005
    13. 13. Turner 2008
    14. 14. A working definition“Personal Learning Environments are learningenvironments where learners can integratedistributed information, resources andcontacts and reflect about learning progressand learning products based on standardsand interfaces”.Schaffert/Kalz 2010
    15. 15. PLE vs. the rest
    16. 16. The proceedings
    17. 17. Some statistics Case studies Theoretical/Technical papers Empirical papers3 30 336 papers
    18. 18. A critical look
    19. 19. Problems for empirical PLE studies• Complex relationship between technology, learners and learning effects• How to avoid a technology-deterministic view?• PLE framework vs. PLE instantiation• Data collection• Comparability• End-users?
    20. 20. A conversation
    21. 21. A conversation
    22. 22. Structuration Theory
    23. 23. Structuration Theory Rose, 2001
    24. 24. Structuration Theory
    25. 25. Adaptive Structuration Theory„Technology properties and contextual contingencies can playcritical roles in the outcomes of advanced information technologyuse. The difficulty is that there are no clearcut patterns indicatingthat some technology properties are contingencies consistentlylead to either positive or negative outcomes” (DeSanctis & Poole1994, S. 124).
    26. 26. A structurational perspective of technology use ! Orlikowski & Robey, 1991
    27. 27. Theoretical foundation• Structuration theory
    28. 28. Perspective a.) Technology as a product„Designers incorporate some of these structures into thetechnology; the structures may be reproduced so as to mimictheir nontechnology counterparts, or they may be modified,enhanced, or combined with manual procedures, thuscreating new structures within the technology. Oncecomplete, the technology presents an array of socialstructures for possible use in interpersonal interaction,including rules […] and resources” (DeSanctis/Poole 1994, S.125).
    29. 29. Perspective a.) PLE frameworks http://taolin.fbk.eu
    30. 30. Perspective a.) PLE frameworks http://taolin.fbk.eu
    31. 31. Perspective a.) Artefact vs. use Orlikowski & Robey, 1991
    32. 32. Perspective b.) PLE as a medium for human action
    33. 33. Perspective b.) Facilities• Why do PLE users choose specific functionalities and not others?• How do learners integrate these facilities with other facilities?• How stable are facilities over the time?
    34. 34. Perspective b.) Norms• Which normative framing influences the structuration process?• Do norms that learner know from other learning experiences (e.g. the authority of an expert) get re- assured or changed?• Which social norms emerge especially when we look at a network of PLE in which learners self-organize their learning support via the integration of social networks etc.?
    35. 35. Perspective b.) Interpretative schemes• What are assumptions & expectations of PLE users?• Which prior experiences do they have with PLE or other learning technology?• Which implicit, tacit & explicit knowledge do they apply?
    36. 36. Perspective c.) Institutional context of usage University of the Basque Country/Casquero 2008
    37. 37. Perspective c.) Institutional context of usage
    38. 38. Perspective d.) Consequences of PLE usage• What are the (unintended) consequences of using a PLE?• How does the attitude towards institutional learning platforms change when universities offer PLE platforms?• Which events have lead to new learning goals and opportunities?
    39. 39. Operationalizing structurational PLE studies Process data
    40. 40. Langley, 1999
    41. 41. Operationalizing structurational PLE studies Pozzebon & Pinsonneault, 2001
    42. 42. Operationalizing structurational PLE studies Pozzebon & Pinsonneault, 2001
    43. 43. Research challenges• The competent actor• Which effects are we analyzing (macro-level of learning or micro-level)?• Generalizability problems• Reinforcment of structures vs. transformation• Which methods for process data?• Interrelations between widgets
    44. 44. PLE
    45. 45. PLE Research
    46. 46. PLE ResearchStructurationTheory
    47. 47. PLE ResearchStructurationTheory Structuration Theory & IT
    48. 48. PLE ResearchStructurationTheory Structuration Theory & IT Analysis relations
    49. 49. PLE ResearchStructurationTheory Structuration Theory & IT Analysis relations Methods
    50. 50. PLE ResearchStructurationTheory Structuration Theory & IT Analysis relations Methods Challenges
    51. 51. PLE Empirical PLE Research studiesStructurationTheory Structuration Theory & IT Analysis relations Methods Challenges
    52. 52. Thank you for your attention Dr. Marco Kalz marco.kalz@ou.nl http://twitter.com/mkalz http://www.marcokalz.de http://celstec.org

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