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How does the body protect itselffrom the invasion of pathogens?       What are pathogens?
bacteria               viruses           Pathogens           “Germs” fungi                 protists
International Pathogens
Pathogen - an infectious agent that can           cause disease in its host
How does the body defend itself ?
DefenseOffense
How does the body prevent pathogens           from entering?            First Line of Defense               Physical Barri...
Where can pathogens enter the body?
Physical Barriers
Chemical Barriers
What happens if the pathogens get through the first line of defense?      Second Line Of Defense          Inflammation
phagocytosis
phagocytosishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fpOxgAU5fFQ
What happens if the first andsecond lines of defense are notenough to stop the pathogens?
The third (and last) line of defense:  The Immune Response
Antigen -any substance that isrecognized as foreign to thebody and stimulates animmune response
Lymphatic system
Lymphatic System• absorbs and transports digested fat from the small intestine• transports lymph      - a tissue- cleaning...
A Lymph NodePaul Revere
How is a lymph node like a police station?
Antigen              Receptor              rPhagocyte            Helper T cell
-Why? Phagocyte       Helper T cellHelper T cell - Sounds the alarmWhat does a helper T-cell “say”?
Help!!!The helper T-cell  activates the   rest of theimmune system
Antibodie              Y sY              Y         YY     Y      Y                            Y       Y              Y    ...
AntibodyB Cell     Helper T cell
B cell                         AntibodiesMemory B Cell   B CellWhat does a memory B cell say?
NEVER          FORGET!!!Memory B Cell
What is Immunity?the ability of the body to resist a disease
The Immune Response
The Immune Response
Memory cells remain ready JIC…                      Macrophages “clean up” debris               “Army” of B and T cells at...
What is the first line of defense?   Physical and chemical barriersWhat is the second line of defense?   InflammationWhat ...
If you have the chicken pox     once why don’t you    (usually) get it again?
NEVER          FORGET!!!Memory B Cell
How is the secondary responsedifferent from the primary response?
How is the secondary response  different from the primary response?Secondary immune response is stronger, faster, and long...
What is a vaccine?A weakened or dead pathogen putinto the body to stimulate theproduction of antibodies andmemory cells (i...
How is a vaccine like sparring?
How do vaccines protect us from           disease? Vaccines activate the primary immune response (stimulate the body to p...
   A boy became ill with the chicken pox and    recovered. A year later, he was exposed    to the same disease again but ...
When the boy got infected the firsttime his primary immune responsewas activated and he made antibodiesto attack the antig...
What is this?Antibody
For each kindof pathogenthe bodymakesspecificantibodies(and cells ofthe immunesystem) thatrecognize it
Active Immunity    Passive ImmunityYou make           You don’t makethe antibodies     the antibodies  Exposure to        ...
Active immunityPassive Immunity
The Immune Response1. Antigen enters body2. Macrophages engulf and   destroy antigen or cell   infected with antigen
The Immune Response3. Macrophage displaysantigen to helper T cells(activating them)4. Activated Helper T cellactivates B c...
The Immune Response5. Activated B cells formmemory B cells and plasmacells (which make antibodies)  Activated T cells form...
The Immune Response6. Antibodies bind to freeantigen and target them fordestruction by macrophages   Killer T cells destro...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpj0emEGShQHow viruses infect cellshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2h0ECyMWhEHIV destroying...
The Immune Response
The Immune Response
Immune response 2012
Immune response 2012
Immune response 2012
Immune response 2012
Immune response 2012
Immune response 2012
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Immune response 2012

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Immune response 2012

  1. 1. How does the body protect itselffrom the invasion of pathogens? What are pathogens?
  2. 2. bacteria viruses Pathogens “Germs” fungi protists
  3. 3. International Pathogens
  4. 4. Pathogen - an infectious agent that can cause disease in its host
  5. 5. How does the body defend itself ?
  6. 6. DefenseOffense
  7. 7. How does the body prevent pathogens from entering? First Line of Defense Physical Barriers Chemical Barriers
  8. 8. Where can pathogens enter the body?
  9. 9. Physical Barriers
  10. 10. Chemical Barriers
  11. 11. What happens if the pathogens get through the first line of defense? Second Line Of Defense Inflammation
  12. 12. phagocytosis
  13. 13. phagocytosishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fpOxgAU5fFQ
  14. 14. What happens if the first andsecond lines of defense are notenough to stop the pathogens?
  15. 15. The third (and last) line of defense: The Immune Response
  16. 16. Antigen -any substance that isrecognized as foreign to thebody and stimulates animmune response
  17. 17. Lymphatic system
  18. 18. Lymphatic System• absorbs and transports digested fat from the small intestine• transports lymph - a tissue- cleaning fluid• transports white blood cells villus
  19. 19. A Lymph NodePaul Revere
  20. 20. How is a lymph node like a police station?
  21. 21. Antigen Receptor rPhagocyte Helper T cell
  22. 22. -Why? Phagocyte Helper T cellHelper T cell - Sounds the alarmWhat does a helper T-cell “say”?
  23. 23. Help!!!The helper T-cell activates the rest of theimmune system
  24. 24. Antibodie Y sY Y YY Y Y Y Y Y Y Y B CellsKiller T Cells
  25. 25. AntibodyB Cell Helper T cell
  26. 26. B cell AntibodiesMemory B Cell B CellWhat does a memory B cell say?
  27. 27. NEVER FORGET!!!Memory B Cell
  28. 28. What is Immunity?the ability of the body to resist a disease
  29. 29. The Immune Response
  30. 30. The Immune Response
  31. 31. Memory cells remain ready JIC… Macrophages “clean up” debris “Army” of B and T cells attack antigen & infected cells (B cells make antibodies etc…) Activated B cells and T cells divide; form more B and T cells and memory cells Helper T cells activate B cells and Killer T cells Helper T cell activated Macrophage displays antigen to Helper T cellMacrophages engulf, destroy antigen Antigen enters body
  32. 32. What is the first line of defense? Physical and chemical barriersWhat is the second line of defense? InflammationWhat is the third line of defense? The Immune Response
  33. 33. If you have the chicken pox once why don’t you (usually) get it again?
  34. 34. NEVER FORGET!!!Memory B Cell
  35. 35. How is the secondary responsedifferent from the primary response?
  36. 36. How is the secondary response different from the primary response?Secondary immune response is stronger, faster, and longer than the primary response.
  37. 37. What is a vaccine?A weakened or dead pathogen putinto the body to stimulate theproduction of antibodies andmemory cells (immune response)
  38. 38. How is a vaccine like sparring?
  39. 39. How do vaccines protect us from disease? Vaccines activate the primary immune response (stimulate the body to produce antibodies and memory cells)
  40. 40.  A boy became ill with the chicken pox and recovered. A year later, he was exposed to the same disease again but did not become ill. Why didn’t he develop chicken pox after the second exposure? Explain using the following terms: primary immune response, secondary immune response, memory cells, antibodies, antigen
  41. 41. When the boy got infected the firsttime his primary immune responsewas activated and he made antibodiesto attack the antigen. His immunecells divided and left behind memorycells. When he got infected the secondtime his memory cells made thesecondary immune response fight thedisease faster and stronger, so hedidn’t even get sick..
  42. 42. What is this?Antibody
  43. 43. For each kindof pathogenthe bodymakesspecificantibodies(and cells ofthe immunesystem) thatrecognize it
  44. 44. Active Immunity Passive ImmunityYou make You don’t makethe antibodies the antibodies Exposure to - injection antigen - breastfeeding - vaccine - infection
  45. 45. Active immunityPassive Immunity
  46. 46. The Immune Response1. Antigen enters body2. Macrophages engulf and destroy antigen or cell infected with antigen
  47. 47. The Immune Response3. Macrophage displaysantigen to helper T cells(activating them)4. Activated Helper T cellactivates B cells and KillerT cells
  48. 48. The Immune Response5. Activated B cells formmemory B cells and plasmacells (which make antibodies) Activated T cells formmemory T cells and killer Tcells
  49. 49. The Immune Response6. Antibodies bind to freeantigen and target them fordestruction by macrophages Killer T cells destroyinfected cells
  50. 50. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpj0emEGShQHow viruses infect cellshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2h0ECyMWhEHIV destroying Helper T cells
  51. 51. The Immune Response
  52. 52. The Immune Response

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