Applying the 3*3 Writing Process Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3• Analysis • Research • Revision• Anticipation • Organization • Proofreading• Adaptation • Composition • Evaluation
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3• Analysis • Research • Revision• Anticipation • Organization • Proofreading• Adaptation • Composition • Evaluation Do I really need to write? What communication channel is best? Why am I writing? How will the reader react? How can I save my reader’s time?
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3• Analysis • Research • Revision• Anticipation • Organization • Proofreading• Adaptation • Composition • Evaluation Check files, gather documentation. Outline or list points to cover. Compose first draft; expect to revise.
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3• Analysis • Research • Revision• Anticipation • Organization • Proofreading• Adaptation • Composition • Evaluation Revise for clarity and conciseness. Proofread for correctness. Plan for feedback.
ELEMENTS OF LETTER WRITING• HEADING• DATE• REFERENCE• INSIDE ADDRESS• SALUTATION• SUBJECT• BODY• COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE• SIGNATURE• IDENTIFICATION MARKS• ENCLOUSERS 7
HEADING• Name, address and other details are printed on the top of the page 8
RULES OF WRITING DATE• Typed two space below the last line of the letter head• Indicated on the upper right hand corner or depending on the format you adopt• Preferable way of writing should be in a logical order, if so no comma is used• Name of the month and year is written in full• No suffix as –nd or –th is added to the day.• EXAMPLE: 2 August 2011 or August 2, 2011 9
REFERENCE• Now a days companies prefer to indicate the reference number in the body of letters:- Thank you for your letter No. AB/46/P497 Of April 2, 20011 10
SALUTATION• Two spaces below the attention line/inside address• Depends upon-1.personal relationship 2.form of the inside address If the name of the recipient has been used in the inside address it is usual to use personal salutation.• Addressing a firm, company, a board, etc use ‘Dear Sirs/Madams.’ 11
SUBJECT• Purpose- to let the reader know immediately what the message is about.• It saves time• Type the line in a double space between the salutation and the first line of the body of the letter. 12
BODYMain purpose is to convey a messageFirst paragraph- reference, to any correspondence which has already taken place should be givenSecond paragraph -should state main messageClosing paragraph- states expectations, wishes, or intentions 13
COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE• Typed two space below the last line of the body of the letter• The close must agree the salutation• ‘Yours’ should be placed before sincerely, faithfully, etc.• ‘s should not be used at any cost 14
SIGNATURE• Placed below the complimentary close• Name is typed four space below the closing line providing enough space for signature• Routine letters of the firm may be signed by other officer by inserting ‘for’ or pp (per procurationem). 15
ENCLOSURE• If there is anything attached to the letter it must be indicated against the enclosure line• Typed two lines below the last line of the letter on the left hand side• The abbreviated form Encl. is used 16
Lets revise..• HEADING- 1/5th of the space• DATE- Right side, follow logical order, -nd and –th should not be used• INSIDE ADDRESS Details not to be abbreviated, take care of spellings• ATTENTION LINE Should always be underlined• BODY- 1st para-Reference,2nd para-main message,3rd para- expectations, intentions• COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE- ‘s should never be used, Signature should be above your name• Enclosures 17
Why is email etiquette important? ….to construct an appropriate tone.
Analyzing the Structure of E-Mail 0 Messages and Memos Subject Line Opening Body Closing
0 Analyzing Structure Subject Line Summarize message clearly and concisely. Avoid meaningless one-word headings, such as "Help" or "Urgent." Opening Frontload main idea immediately. Avoid reviewing background.
0 Analyzing Structure Body Organize information and explanations logically. Use numbered and bulleted lists for quick comprehension. Consider adding headings for visual impact.
0Format2. Generally short3. Single Spaced and left justified4. No indentation, skip line for Para change5. Prefer bullets and Rubrics
0 General Format: Addresses create a mailing list- eg To: email@example.comUse bcc if the information of the recipients has to be confidential
0 Attachments “This file is in MSWord 2000 under the name “Lab File.”
0 ParallelismParagraph InstructionsHeadings Techniques To Improve Message ReadabilityBulleted Headings Items Within Sentences
0 ParallelismInstead of this Try thisWorkers were nervous, Workers werestressed, and full of nervous, stressed,preoccupation. and preoccupied.
0 InstructionsInstead of this Try thisTo clean the printer, you To clean the printer,should do the following. do the following:First, you should Disconnect the powerdisconnect the power cord.cord. Then you open the Open the front cover.front cover, and the Clean the printer areaprinter area should be with a soft, dry cloth.cleaned with a soft, drycloth.
0 HeadingsInstead of this Try thisOn April 3 we willbe in Toledo, and Date City Speakerthe speaker is Troy April 3 Toledo Troy LeeLee. On May 20 May 20 Detroit Erin Winwe will be inDetroit, and thespeaker is ErinWin.
0 Within SentencesInstead of this Try thisOur team constantly Our teamtries to achieve our constantly tries to (a) achieve ourgoals, customer service goals, (b) improvemust be improved, and customer service,our production targets and (c) hit ourmust be hit. production targets.
0 Bulleted ItemsInstead of this Try thisAt our Web site At our Web site We let you compare you can do the cash prices. following: You can research the Compare cash best financing. prices. You can learn about Research the best financing. leasing. Learn about leasing.
0 Paragraph HeadingsInstead of this Try thisThe next topic is Vacations. A newvacations. A new vacation schedulevacation schedule will be will be available onavailable on May 1. May 1. Flextime. To assistTo assist employees, we employees, we willwill begin a flex schedule begin a flex schedulein the fall. in the fall.
Arrange the following in a concise, bulleted list.In the next training The next training sessionsession, the trainer willdemonstrate how to use Quick will demonstrate Videoconferencingvideoconferencing, how to Check multiple Sharingshare multiple programs, programsand how to maintain an Maintaining anInternet directory. Internet directory
Improve the readability of the following instructionsthat will become part of a student employmentbooklet.In preparing for an employment interview, you should Quickbegin by studying the job description. Itemizing yourmost strategic skills and qualifications is also Checkimportant. Giving responses in a mock interview isanother good practice technique. Last, you should beprepared to ask relevant questions.
Improved VersionYou can prepare for interviews by doing thefollowing: for interviews by doing the following: You can prepare Itemize your most strategic skills and qualifications.strategic skills and qualifications. • Itemize your most • Practice giving responses in a mock interview. Practice giving responses in a mock interview. • Prepare to ask relevant questions. Prepare to ask relevant questions.
Analyzing the Structure of E-Mail 0 Messages and Memos Subject Line Opening Body Closing Provide (1) action information, dates, and deadlines, (2) a summary of the message, or (3) a closing thought. Avoid overused expressions.
Formatting E-Mail 0 Messages Guide WordsTo: Consider keying receiver’s full name; use angle brackets for e-mail address Ann Jones<firstname.lastname@example.org>From: Entered automaticallyDate: Entered automaticallySubject: Include meaningful topic summary.
0 Salutation Options No salutation Ann, Dear Ann:, Hi, or Good morning! Include name in first line “Thanks, Ann, for your help . . .”
0 Body and ClosingBody Cover just one topic. Use uppercase and lowercase letters. Use short line length if message might be forwarded.Closing Consider a complimentary closing such as Best wishes or Cheers. Include your name and full identification– especially for messages to outsiders.
Model E-Mail MessageDate: September 3, 2007 9:05:12 AM ESTTo: Matt Ferranto <email@example.com>From: Brooke Johnson <firstname.lastname@example.org>Subject: Supervising Two Assigned InternsMatt:Two interns will work in your department from September 20 throughNovember 30. As part of their supervision, you should do the following: Develop a work plan describing their duties.
Model E-Mail Message Supervise their work to ensure positive results. Assess their professionalism in completing all assigned work.Please examine the packet we are sending you. It contains forms andadditional information about the two students assigned to yourdepartment. Call me at Ext. 248 if you have questions.Best,BrookeBrooke JohnsonHuman Resources & DevelopmentE-mail: email@example.comPhone: (425) 896-3420
Header– To: recipient (individuals and/or groups)– From: you/office (e.g. “Student affairs”)/group (e.g. “Social Committee”)– CC: more recipient(s)– Date:– use correct names/designations for recipients– include titles when appropriate, for all recipients when possible
To section• Contains the name of the receiver.• For informal memos, the receivers given name; e.g. To: Andy is enough.• For more formal memos, use the receivers full name.• If the receiver is in another department, use the full name and the department name.• It is usually not necessary to use Mr., Mrs., Miss or Ms unless the memo is very formal.
From section• Contains the name of the sender.• For informal memos, the senders other name; e.g. From: Bill is enough.• For more formal memos, use the senders full name.• If the receiver is in another department, use the full name and the department name.• It is usually not necessary to use Mr., Mrs., Miss or Ms unless the memo is very formal.
cc ("Carbon Copy")– cc ("Carbon Copy") Although carbon copy paper is obsolete technology, the term persists.– Subject: Be specific.
Date:• Spell it out.In some countries "12/01/98" means -"December 1, 1998,“ but in others it means "12 January 1998."
Subject line• probably the most important part of your memo• summarize the intent of your memo, e.g.: – “Request for assistance with grant project” – “Consequences of recent material thefts”• specific, concise and to the point
Memo sections• Situation- Introduction or purpose• Problem (Optional)• Solution (optional)• Action- may be same as solution or be a part of the solution• Politeness- Close with polite expression
1-inch top margin Double- Pre-printedspace organization memo1 – 1¼ 1 – 1¼ stationery Single-spaceinches letters, memos do not inches Unlike paragraphs with (left (right have a Align all block at the signaturemargin) blank line between margin) bottom. Instead sign your initials words at the end of paragraphs the FROM line.
Double-space; alignDescribe the spacingandwords after of thisall alignment colonfollowing “SUBJECT.” section.
Single-space; Describe howleave blank line to space the between message. paragraphs.
Sign your initials Describe howyou would of theat the end sign a FROM line. memo.
0 Bad Manners Approaching with a problem at the end of the day Writing a litany of concerns Sending mails to your professors without prior permissions Discussing grades and projects on mail Avoid flaming messages
0 Netiquette Limit any tendency to send blanket copies. Never send “spam.” Consider using identifying labels, such as ACTION, FYI, RE, URGENT. Use capital letters only for emphasis or for titles. Seek permission before forwarding. Reduce attachments.
0 Reading and Replying Scan all messages before replying. Print only when necessary. Acknowledge receipt. Don’t automatically return the sender’s message. Revise the subject line if the topic changes. Provide a clear, complete first sentence.
0 Personal Use Don’t use company computers for personal matters unless allowed by your organization. Assume that all e- mail is monitored.
0 Other Smart Practices Use design to improve readability of longer messages. Consider cultural differences. Double-check before hitting the Send button.