Pathology project powerpoint tb


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Pathology project powerpoint tb

  1. 1. I HOPE NO ONE HERE HAS: 10-15 Million in USA are INFECTED!(latent)
  2. 2. INFECTED? Yep. <ul><li>People who have inhaled the TB bacteria, but in whom the disease is controlled, are referred to as infected. Their immune system has walled off the organism in an inflammatory focus known as a granuloma. They have no symptoms, frequently have a positive skin test for TB, yet cannot transmit the disease to others . This is referred to as latent tuberculosis infection or LTBI.
  3. 3. Hide yo kids, Hide yo wife.... </li></ul>
  4. 4. You're healthy, you say? Well <ul>The most common diagnostic test that leads to the suspicion of infection is a chest X-ray . Tell me, has anyone here ever done a chest x-ray? Raise Yo Hand, Playas! </ul>
  5. 5. &quot;Support Bacteria; It's The Only Culture We Have Left.&quot; <ul><li>“ Traditionally, the term tuberculosis has been used to indicate infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M bovis; however, a multitude of causative mycobacteria are recognized.” - Tara M Catanzano, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine – August 28, 2010 </li></ul>All cases of TB are passed from person to person via droplets. When someone with TB infection coughs, sneezes, or talks, tiny droplets of saliva or mucus are expelled into the air, which can be inhaled by another person.
  6. 6. Getting to the goods <ul><li>Once infectious particles reach the alveoli (small saclike structures in the air spaces in the lungs), another cell, called the macrophage, engulfs the TB bacteria.
  7. 7. Then the bacteria are transmitted to the lymphatic system and bloodstream and spread to other organs occurs.
  8. 8. The bacteria further multiply in organs that have high oxygen pressures, such as the upper lobes of the lungs, the kidneys, bone marrow, and meninges -- the membrane-like coverings of the brain and spinal cord. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Who's gonna be... <ul><li>Looks like Grandma in this case.
  10. 10. Tuberculosis may involve multiple organs such as the lung, liver, spleen, kidney, brain, and bone.
  11. 11. About 15% of people develop tuberculosis in an organ other than their lungs. About 25% of these people usually had known TB with inadequate treatment. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Risk Factors <ul><li>HIV positive people
  13. 13. People with weakened immune systems </li></ul>
  14. 14. Risk Factors <ul><li>Alcoholism </li></ul>WINNING!
  15. 15. Risk Factors <ul><li>Low socioeconomic status – No Offense Dana
  16. 16. Homelessness –
  17. 17. I'm not sorry Baxter! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Risk Factors <ul><li>Crowded Living Conditions </li></ul>
  19. 19. Yadda, Yadda, Yadda <ul><li>Lets look at some images. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Posterior Right Upper Lung TB A.J. Chandrasekhar, M.D. <ul><li>As many as 15% of patients with primary tuberculosis have normal chest radiographic findings. </li></ul>Lets take a closer look...
  21. 21. Same picture as the last one...
  22. 22. Bilateral Upper Lobe Disease Soft, Puffy Infiltrates Cavity in Lower Left Quadrant A.J. Chandrasekhar, M.D.
  23. 23. Spinal Tuberculosis Loss of intervertebral space Vertebral collapse A.J. Chandrasekhar, M.D.
  24. 24. 12 year-old-female with history of recurrent chest infection for 3 years duration and positive history of contact with tuberculosis infected patient, pathologicaly proven tuberculosis.
  25. 25. In a minority of people with weakened immune systems, TB bacteria may spread through their blood to various parts of the body. This is called miliary tuberculosis and produces fever, weakness, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Cough and difficulty breathing are less common. X-ray of the chest of a patient with miliary tuberculosis (TB). Affected areas of the lungs (black) are shown by grainy white patches.
  26. 26. A 48-year-old foreign-born woman developed cough, sputum production, and blood-tinged sputum. Sputum staining showed tubercle bacilli. Her chest X-ray showed a cavity-like lesion in right upper lobe of her lung.
  27. 27. Doctors treated the same woman with three medications for TB. One month later, she showed significant improvement, as seen by this repeat chest X-ray. Standard therapy for active TB consists of a six-month regimen: Two months with Rifater (isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide) ; Four months of isoniazid and rifampin (Rifamate, Rimactane); And ethambutol (Myambutol) or streptomycin added until your drug sensitivity is known (from the results of bacterial cultures).
  28. 28. Prior to the 1950s, medications were not available for treating tuberculosis. One of the treatments was placing paraffin wax sheets in the chest cavity to stop the infection. This patient had this treatment performed on her. This is of pure historical interest because this treatment is no longer performed.
  29. 29. Prevention is the key! <ul><li>Or you need a flower that grows feathers.
  30. 30. In 2009, the TB rate in the United States was 3.8 cases per 100,000 population , a slight decrease from the prior year. Four states (California, Florida, New York , and Texas) accounted for the majority of all new TB cases (50.3%).
  31. 31. -WHO
  32. 32. (World Health Organization) </li></ul>
  33. 34. Talk to your doctor.