Public Relations History: Getting where you want to go by knowing where you’ve been!


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Presented by:
Michael Tullier, APR
2009 Accreditation in Public Relations (APR) Workshop
Public Relations Society of America-Alabama Chapter
October 7, 2009

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Public Relations History: Getting where you want to go by knowing where you’ve been!

  1. 1. Public Relations History:<br />Getting where you want to go by knowing where you’ve been!<br />2009 Accreditation Workshop<br />PRSA-Alabama<br />Michael Tullier, APR<br />October 7, 2009<br />
  2. 2. First, you’ve got to know where you’ve been…..<br />
  3. 3. Six Major PR Eras<br />Seedbed Era (1900-1917)<br />World War I (1917-1919)<br />The Booming 20s (1919-1929)<br />The FDR Era (1930-1945)<br />Post War (1945-1965)<br />Global Information Society (1965-today)<br />
  4. 4. Pre-Seedbed Era (1865-1900)<br />characterized by<br />Rapid industrial growth<br />Monopolies<br />“Public be damned” attitude<br />Protect company at all cost<br />Guard release of information<br />Pit management against employees<br />
  5. 5. Amos Kendall<br />US Postmaster General under Jackson and Van Buren<br />Key member of Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet<br />Excelled at creating events to mold opinion<br />Known as pollster, counselor, ghostwriter and publicist<br />Considered by some first presidential press secretary<br />Amos Kendall<br />1789-1869<br />
  6. 6. Theodore N. Vail<br />Pioneered corporate public relations with A&T<br />Understood the necessity for improving relationships between corporations and public<br />Theodore N. Vail<br />1845-1920<br />
  7. 7. George Westinghouse<br />Created first corporate PR department<br />George Westinghouse<br />1846-1914<br />
  8. 8. Seedbed Era (1900-1917)<br />Bernays Period: Public be informed. Muckraking, social reform, unions<br />PR Trend: Defensive publicity. Journalists hired as interpreters to get the news out.<br />Key PR Figures<br />Ivy Lee Jr.: full disclosure, tell truth<br />Pres. Theodore Roosevelt: bully pulpit<br />
  9. 9. Ivy Ledbetter Lee<br />“Founder of modern PR”<br />“First public relations counsel”<br />Created “Declaration of Principles” issued to journalists<br />Supply news/ensure company’s work is open, accurate, transparent and prompt<br />Among first to recognize publicity needs to be supported by good works<br />Ivy Lee<br />1877-1934<br />
  10. 10. Theodore Roosevelt<br />First president to exploit news media as a new and powerful tool of presidential leadership<br />Audio and film<br />Theodore Roosevelt<br />1858-1919<br />
  11. 11. Publicity Bureau<br />US’s first publicity agency and forerunner of modern PR firm<br />established in Boston in 1900<br />Used tools of fact-finding, publicity and personal contacts to saturate media with railroad propaganda<br />Harvard College was its most prestigious client<br />
  12. 12. World War I (1917-1919)<br />Bernays Period: Public be informed. The war to end all wars.<br />PR Trend: Organized promotion. Promote patriotism. Use interest groups.<br />Key PR figure:<br />George Creed: The Four Minutemen<br />
  13. 13. George Creel<br />Chairman of WWI Committee on Public Information<br />Used publicity to mobilize public<br />Started “Four Minutemen” spokespersons from key opinion leader groups<br />Creel Committee secured media space to promote Liberty Bond investments<br />George Creel<br />1876-1953<br />
  14. 14. The Booming 20s (1919-1929)<br />Bernays Period: Mutual understanding<br />PR Trend: Promoting products. WWI publicity techniques used for social science.<br />Key PR figures<br />Edward Bernays: Crystallizing Public Opinion ‘23; Propaganda ’28<br />Arthur Page: Performance = Reputation<br />
  15. 15. Edward Bernays<br />“The father of public relations”<br />Coined “public relations counsel”<br />Wrote first PR book: Crystallizing Public Opinion<br />Taught first PR course at New York University<br />First to call himself PR professional<br />Edward Bernays<br />1891-1995<br />
  16. 16. Arthur Page<br />AT&T VP of Public Relations, 1927-1946<br />First PR professional to serveas an officer/member of a corporate board<br />Helped set standard for corporate PR<br />‘company’s performance would be determined by its public reputation’<br />Arthur Page<br />1883-1960<br />
  17. 17. The FDR Era (1930-1945)<br />Bernays Period: Social responsibility, mass publicity. Depression. WWII.<br />PR Trend: Mass media.<br />Key PR figures:<br />Louis McHenry Howe: responsible performance; persuasive publicity<br />Elmer Davis: Office of War Info.<br />FDR: “Fireside Chats”<br />
  18. 18. Louis McHenry Howe<br />PR adviser to FDR until he died<br />Helped FDR develop concept of “Fireside Chats”<br />Recognized that mutually beneficial public relationships could be built by coupling responsible performance with persuasive publicity<br />Howe, with FDR<br />1871-1936<br />
  19. 19. Elmer Davis<br />Director of WWII Office of War Information<br />Pioneered widespread use of radio, Hollywood and media to publicize war effort<br />Elmer Davis<br />1890-1958<br />
  20. 20. Post War (1945-1965)<br />Bernays Period: Professionalism. Post-war service economy, consumerism<br />PR Trend: Credibility, associations form (PRSA), Code of Ethics written, College curricula develop, TV<br />Key PR Figures:<br />Rex Harlow: PRSA<br />
  21. 21. Rex Harlow<br />“Founder of public relations research”<br />Probably first full-time PR educator<br />Founded the American Counsel on Public Relations<br />Through mergers of other organizations ultimately became PRSA in 1947<br />
  22. 22. Global Information Society (1965-today)<br />Bernays Period: Mutual adjustment<br />PR Trend: Accommodation. Systems Theory. Management by Objective. Functional vs. Functionary Approach. Technology<br />Key PR figure:<br />Marshall McLuhan: Canadian educator, understanding media, “global village,” “the medium is the message.”<br />
  23. 23. You’ve got to know where you’ve been…..<br />
  24. 24. …to know where you’re going!<br />
  25. 25. Where are you going?<br />Questionnaire<br />Computer-based Exam<br />Short Bookshelf<br />Panelists<br />ReadinessReview<br />Maintenance<br />Portfolio<br />Online Study Course<br />Study Guide<br />KSAs<br />
  26. 26. Questions? Need More Info?<br /> Michael Tullier, APR334.844.1324 (work)<br />“APR Interest Group”<br /><br />