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French Revolution PowerPoint


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Use this Power Point created by Ms. Ariemma to help you study about the French Revolution.

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French Revolution PowerPoint

  1. 1. Characteristics and Causes
  2. 2. <ul><li>Each group is given lyrics to a song that relates to revolutions. Your job is to read the song lyrics and summarize the main ideas of the song. You should answer these three questions in your notebook before we discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do these songs have to say about the causes of revolutions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are those involved in revolutions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some emotions that go along with revolutionary ideas? </li></ul></ul>Revolution Songs
  3. 3. <ul><li>A term used to describe an aggressive overthrow of a government structure or social construct or a massive sudden societal values. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually represents a complete turnaround from one way of doing things to another way, which is drastically opposite. </li></ul>What is a Revolution?
  4. 4. <ul><li>A political idea: A dramatic shift in power where a society rejects and overthrows its government and institutions, along with ideas that have been used to justify them. </li></ul><ul><li>Change in a revolution is total. </li></ul><ul><li>Most revolutions are motivated by the masses, using their advantage to overwhelm their own leadership. </li></ul>Major Characteristics of a Revolution
  5. 5. <ul><li>Violence is a common feature, usually seen through the execution of the rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperity and employment are reorganized. </li></ul><ul><li>For thousands of years, society was remarkably static-agricultural society where political change seemed impossibly… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What changed this? </li></ul></ul>Major Characteristics…
  6. 6. <ul><li>Material conditions- taxation, drought, famine, economic downturns </li></ul><ul><li>Oppression or dire poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat in war </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign rule- often seen in wars of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Domino effect- French soldiers who had fought on the American side of Independence often returned to France imbedded with new ideas of liberty. </li></ul>Driving forces of Revolutions
  7. 7. <ul><li>Revolutionary Ideas- new ideas that were coming out of the Enlightenment. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Causes - the division of the three estates and the unfair taxation laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Depression - the 1770’s-1780’s brought economic depressions, with a downturn of economics and trade. This led to a lack of work and a deep hunger. </li></ul>Major causes of the French Revolution
  8. 8. <ul><li>What are some characteristics of revolutions we discussed yesterday? </li></ul>Focus Question
  9. 9. <ul><li>Poor Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Massive Spending by the royals </li></ul><ul><li>Hatred of Marie Antoinette </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>The American Revolution </li></ul>Causes of the French Revolution
  10. 10. <ul><li>Political Power </li></ul><ul><li>Social Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to provide for their families </li></ul><ul><li>Royalty to step down </li></ul>Needs of the French People
  11. 11. <ul><li>Clergy (Church)- privileged estate. </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 1% of the population but owned 10% of the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only were they minimally taxed, but they collected 10% tithe from the people ( tax-like payment). </li></ul>First Estate
  12. 12. <ul><li>Nobility- holding the highest positions in the Church, the army, and the Government. </li></ul><ul><li>2% of the population and controlled the majority of the wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Exempt from paying taxes of any kind, and collected rent and customary dues from the peasantry. </li></ul>Second Estate
  13. 13. <ul><li>Consisted of everyone not in the other two estates- Bourgeoisie, peasantry, and urban artisans. (made up 98% of the population) </li></ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants, manufacturers, bankers, doctors, lawyers, and intellects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All had wealth, but wealth did not mean status or privilege. </li></ul></ul>Third Estate
  14. 14. <ul><li>The Peasantry - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consisted of approx. 21 million people and lived in utmost poverty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collectively owned 30-40% of the available land, which was usually small plots. Most land was rented from peasants who were able to afford it or the nobility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid taxes to the king, taxes to the church, and taxes and dues to the lord of the manor, as well as numerous dues on wine, salt, and bread. </li></ul></ul>Third Estate
  15. 15. <ul><li>1789: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes and rent increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods of farming were inadequate, and there was a poor harvest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prices of bread and other goods rose at a quicker rate than wages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages increased by 22%, while the cost of living increase by 62%. </li></ul></ul>Third Estate
  16. 16. Focus Question <ul><li>What were some of your reactions to this exercise? </li></ul><ul><li>How do these reactions relate to the reactions of the 3 rd estate to their unequal treatment? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Poor people were starving and when the price of bread increased, angry mobs formed. </li></ul>Economic Conditions in France
  18. 18. <ul><li>French Congress consisting of three estates- first meeting in nearly 200 years. </li></ul><ul><li>King Louis VI assembled the estates to pass a tax increase, however the Third estate objects and develops their own plan. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why would the Third estate object? </li></ul></ul>Meeting of the Estates General
  19. 19. <ul><li>Locked out of the estates meeting, the Third estate meets at a local tennis court. </li></ul><ul><li>Vowed to create a new French constitution. </li></ul>Tennis Court Oath
  20. 20. <ul><li>On June 17, 1789, the Third estate renames itself the National Assembly and vows to change France by ending absolute monarchy and establishing a representative government. </li></ul><ul><li>King Louis XVI held a general meeting where the government attempted to intimidate the Third estate into submission. </li></ul>National Assembly
  21. 21. <ul><li>Inspired by the National Assembly, commoners began to riot in protest of the rising prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionaries first raided the Paris town hall in pursuit of arms, but then realized the Bastille contained a large armory. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 14, 1789, angry citizens in support of the National Assembly stormed the prison in Paris. </li></ul>Storming of the Bastille
  22. 22. Storming of the Bastille
  23. 23. <ul><li>Most of the uprisings that began, occurred in the struggling countryside of France. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants and farmers who suffered under high prices and unfair feudal contracts, began to wreak havoc on rural France. </li></ul>Fear Sweeps France
  24. 24. <ul><li>On August 26, 1789, the National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A document that guaranteed due process in judicial matters and establish sovereignty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every person was a Frenchman and equal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French people embraced the document, while the king and nobles did not. </li></ul>Declaration of the Rights of Man
  25. 25. <ul><li>The National Assembly joined by nobles acting out of fear make sweeping reforms, which eliminate the privileges of the church and the nobles. </li></ul>National Assembly Reforms France
  26. 26. <ul><li>The National Assembly became the Legislative Assembly which limited the king’s power. </li></ul><ul><li>Radicals, Moderates, and Conservatives disagreed on governmental ideas. </li></ul>Legislative Assembly
  27. 27. <ul><li>King Louis XVI had contact with the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Sweeden, asking for their help in restoring his family to power. </li></ul><ul><li>In June 1791, the royal family attempted to escape to the Austrian border, but was caught by revolutionaries and brought back to Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>In August 1791, Prussia and Austria demanded the king be unarmed and restored to power, or military force would be used to restore the monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>On April 20, 1972, the Legislative Assembly declared war against Austria. </li></ul>War with Austria
  28. 28. <ul><li>Autumn of 1972, a National Convention was elected to oversee the country under the new Constitution created by the Legislative Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>First action was to abolish the monarchy- the Republic of France was created. </li></ul><ul><li>Next action was to execute the king- on January 21, 1793, King Louis XVI was found guilty of treason and was executed at the guillotine. </li></ul>Execution of the King
  29. 29. Execution of the King
  30. 30. <ul><li>New device created in 1792 to make executions efficient, human, and democratic. </li></ul><ul><li>In October of 1793, Marie Antoinette was also executed. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic of the declaration of sovereignty. </li></ul>Guillotine
  31. 31. Maximilien Robespierre
  32. 32. <ul><li>A Committee on Public Safety was created to maintain order within France. </li></ul><ul><li>Robespierre rose to power- he was leader of the Jacobins and banished the Girondins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He promised a “republic of virtue” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled with terror and his rule became known as the Reign of Terror . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictator from July 1793-1794 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executed on July 28, 1794 . </li></ul></ul>Maximilien Robespierre
  33. 33. <ul><li>Moderates come to power and establish a government with a 2 house legislative body and executive body of five, known as the directory. </li></ul><ul><li>The Directory would have no legislative power, but would have authority to appoint people to fill positions with the government. </li></ul>Moderates Regain Power
  34. 34. <ul><li>Brainstorm what you know about Napoleon Bonaparte. </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: Use your completed homework from last night! </li></ul>Warm-up 11/18
  35. 35. Napoleon Bonaparte
  36. 36. <ul><li>Protected the National Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Led the French army to victory against Austrian troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Put in charge of the military, Directory was dissolved in November 1799. </li></ul><ul><li>A vote of the people in 1800 gave all real power to Napoleon as the first consul. </li></ul>Rise of Napoleon
  37. 37. <ul><li>Reorganized the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Fired corrupt government officials </li></ul><ul><li>Establish public school </li></ul><ul><li>Set up the Napoleonic Codes </li></ul><ul><li>On December 2, 1802, crowned himself emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Began a military campaign to control Europe </li></ul>Napoleon as Leader
  38. 38. Napoleon Crowns Himself
  39. 40. <ul><li>British blockade </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded Spain and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of Russia </li></ul><ul><li>All of Europe’s main powers declared war on France </li></ul><ul><li>Surrendered his crown in April of 1814 </li></ul>Napoleon’s Mistakes
  40. 41. <ul><li>Napoleon, after a brief exile, returns to lead French into battle against the British. </li></ul><ul><li>British defeat Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815 and he is exiled to St. Helena until his death in 1821. </li></ul>Fall of Napoleon
  41. 42. <ul><li>In winter 1814-1815 European leaders gather to develop a plan to restore stability in France. </li></ul><ul><li>Austrian Prime Minister Klemens von Metternich helps develop a plan to allow for a balance of power in Europe and reestablish monarchies across Europe. </li></ul>Congress of Vienna
  42. 43. <ul><li>The representatives of the French people, organized as a National Assembly, believing that the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of the corruptions of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man… Therefore the National Assembly recognizes and proclaims, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of man and of the citizen: </li></ul>Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
  43. 44. <ul><li>Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. </li></ul><ul><li>The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation… </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. </li></ul>Articles:
  44. 45. <ul><li>Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society... </li></ul><ul><li>Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. </li></ul><ul><li>The law shall provide for such punishments only as are strictly and obviously necessary, and no one shall suffer punishment except it be legally inflicted. </li></ul>Articles:
  45. 46. <ul><li>As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty… </li></ul><ul><li>No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law. </li></ul><ul><li>The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law. </li></ul><ul><li>The security of the rights of man and of the citizen requires public military forces. </li></ul>Articles:
  46. 47. <ul><li>A common contribution is essential for the maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of administration. </li></ul><ul><li>All the citizens have a right to decide, either personally or by their representatives, as to necessity of the public contribution; to grant this freely; to know what uses it is put; and to fix the proportion, the mode of assessment and of collection and the duration of the taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Society has the right to require of every public agent as an account of his administration. </li></ul><ul><li>A society in which the observation of the law is not assured, nor the separation of powers defined, has no constitution at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Since property is inviolable and sacred right, no one shall be deprived thereof except where public necessity, legally determined, shall clearly demand it.. </li></ul>Articles: