Spotted wing drosophila and brown marmorated stink bug -         the biggest challenges to berry growers                  ...
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål)
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Native to China, Japan, Korea Introduced around Allentown PA in 1996 Found in Virginia 2004...
BMSB Host Range Highly polyphagous, >300 hosts Fruit crops   Orchard – apple, pear, peach, hazelnut   Small fruits – c...
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
BMSB US Distribution    Dec 2012
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål)
Stink Bug EggsPodisus           Halyomorpha
Brown marmorated stink bug,       Halyomorpha halys• Impact in caneberries?• 50% loss of berries reported by a Virginia  g...
Insertion of stylets -
Stink Bug Injury Injury to berries
Invasive drosophilids in      Virginia Small Fruits•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•...
Drosophila suzukiiMost       Drosophila spp. attack rotting fruitDrosophila   suzukii (spotted wing drosophila)differs i...
SWD Life CycleOverwinters                              20-30+ days as Adults               Male                           ...
SWD Identification: Male                                          G. DillM. Hauser                 Dark spot              ...
SWD Identification: Female                          Female:                          No spot      SWD   Other Drosophila  ...
Invasive drosophilids in       Virginia Vineyards•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Tr...
Dispersal historyIntroduced    into California 2008     Strawberries, caneberriesIn   2009:     California (strawberri...
Dispersal in SoutheastFound   in Florida, Late 2009In 2010 and 2011, trapping program inSouth Carolina, North Carolina a...
Jan. 2013: SWD Distribution in U. S.  National Agricultural Pest Information System (NAPIS). Purdue University. "Survey St...
SWD in Virginia – 2011                                          Frederick Co. Aug. 3           First detected in          ...
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura),in Virginia – October 2012
Invasive drosophilids in       Virginia Vineyards•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Tr...
SWD Host List – Risk?•Raspberries, blackberries, strawberriesblueberries•Cherries, grapes•Nectarines, peaches, plums•Apple...
SWD-infested raspberry
Drosophila suzukii
SWD Host List – Non-crop           hosts•Wild blackberries•Pokeweed•Dogwood•Persimmon•Rose hips•Porcelain berry
SWD Eggs in Fruit
SWD Larvae in Fruit      Note chewing holesE. Beers             Cherry             Strawberry           Damage is difficul...
Drosophila suzukii
Drosophila suzukii
Drosophila suzukii
Invasive drosophilids in       Virginia Vineyards•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Tr...
Trapping for SWD                    Apple cider vinegarsugar/yeast              Burrack: SWD monitoring network
Novel Attractant•   Montgomery Co. berry farm•   Blackberry, raspberry and blueberry•   Alpha Scents; plum, sweet cherry, ...
Preliminary Results                                  ASWD and other drosophila adults                                     ...
Trapping Summary•    SWD was found at every site where traps were    placed•   ACV probably not best monitoring, trap coun...
Invasive drosophilids in       Virginia Vineyards•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Tr...
Albemarle County
Albemarle County
Drosophila suzukii
Drosophila suzukii
Drosophila suzukii
Zaprionus indianus Gupta, African fig fly
Zaprionus indianus Gupta, African fig fly
AFF World Distribution
AFF US Distribution2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2012
African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta,in Virginia – November 2012
Drosophila suzukii
Incidence in wine grapesWeak ovipositorSometimes high incidence in grape berries  In some Virginia clusters, 90% of eme...
Incidence in wine grapesPerhaps follow SWD injury?Biological control example in giant reed  Arundo donax takes over wet...
Competition stuey of Gilpin et al. (1986)Paired rearing comparisons of 28drosophilid species, at two temps, two media1 Z...
Gilpin et al. (1986)In thick food, carried out at 19°C, it wasranked 12 out of 28 in competitivenessIn thick medium at 2...
Gilpin et al. (1986)Crowd out other larvaeLiquify substrate, drowning other larvae
Invasive drosophilids in       Virginia Vineyards•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Su...
SWD Management           Cultural Control•Harvest fruit promptly to eliminate breeding sites•Destroy nearby overripe or ro...
SWD Management         Chemical Control•Need materials with short PHI•Need materials of various MOA•Need to rotate in a sp...
SWD Management       Chemical ControlOrganophosphates:      Malathion effective in West; regionaldifferences?      Imidan ...
SWD Management             Chemical ControlCrop:        Imidan         Malathion 8E   Malathion 8FCaneberry    --         ...
SWD Management             Chemical ControlCrop:        Imidan         Malathion 8E   Malathion 8FCaneberry    --         ...
SWD Management             Chemical ControlCrop:        Imidan         Malathion 8E   Malathion 8FCaneberry    --         ...
SWD Management       Chemical ControlSpinosyns:      Entrust (spinosad) effective butrelatively short lived     Delegate (...
SWD Management             Chemical ControlCrop:        Bifenthrin   Danitol   Mustang   BaythroidCaneberry    3d         ...
SWD Management   Chemical Control – Commercial Vineyards      Critical to use insecticides that have short PHI        PHIs...
SWD Management   Chemical Control – Commercial Vineyards      Critical to use insecticides that have short PHI        PHIs...
SWD Management   Chemical Control – Commercial Vineyards      Critical to use insecticides that have short PHI        PHIs...
Future Work• Chemical control including new chemistry    – Need for rotating MOA    – Need for less disruptive materials• ...
A Request …To aid in proposal development,please send growerexperiences on SWD to:       dgpfeiff@vt.eduAlso for access to...
Questions?
Spotted wing drosophila and brown marmorated stink bug - the biggest challenges to berry growers
Spotted wing drosophila and brown marmorated stink bug - the biggest challenges to berry growers
Spotted wing drosophila and brown marmorated stink bug - the biggest challenges to berry growers
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Spotted wing drosophila and brown marmorated stink bug - the biggest challenges to berry growers

  1. 1. Spotted wing drosophila and brown marmorated stink bug - the biggest challenges to berry growers Douglas G. Pfeiffer Dept. of Entomology Virginia Tech, Blacksburg
  2. 2. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål)
  3. 3. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Native to China, Japan, Korea Introduced around Allentown PA in 1996 Found in Virginia 2004 Now found in 39 states One gen PA, NJ, 2 generations for us (4-6 in subtropical parts of China) In fall, seek shelter in houses Why the big stink?
  4. 4. BMSB Host Range Highly polyphagous, >300 hosts Fruit crops  Orchard – apple, pear, peach, hazelnut  Small fruits – caneberries, blueberries  Wine grapes Field crops  Soybean  Cotton Vegetable crops  Tomatoes  Peppers Ornamental crops
  5. 5. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
  6. 6. BMSB US Distribution Dec 2012
  7. 7. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål)
  8. 8. Stink Bug EggsPodisus Halyomorpha
  9. 9. Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys• Impact in caneberries?• 50% loss of berries reported by a Virginia grower• Prospects for early season populations in 2013?
  10. 10. Insertion of stylets -
  11. 11. Stink Bug Injury Injury to berries
  12. 12. Invasive drosophilids in Virginia Small Fruits•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Trapping•New kid on the block•Management
  13. 13. Drosophila suzukiiMost Drosophila spp. attack rotting fruitDrosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila)differs in attacking ripe and ripening fruit E. Beers E. Beers
  14. 14. SWD Life CycleOverwinters 20-30+ days as Adults Male Female Pupa 3-15 days 12-72 hours Optimal Temp 68-80 F 3-13 days as larva E. Beers & L. Nilson
  15. 15. SWD Identification: Male G. DillM. Hauser Dark spot on leading edge of wing2 darkstripes ontarsi offront legsM. Hauser E. Beers
  16. 16. SWD Identification: Female Female: No spot SWD Other Drosophila on wing D. suzukiiBlunt ovipositor cannot Saw-like, serrated pierce skin of healthy ovipositor with two fruit even rows of teeth
  17. 17. Invasive drosophilids in Virginia Vineyards•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Trapping•New kid on the block•Management
  18. 18. Dispersal historyIntroduced into California 2008  Strawberries, caneberriesIn 2009:  California (strawberries, caneberries)  Oregon (blueberries)  Washington (strawberries)  British Columbia (berries, grapes, cherries)
  19. 19. Dispersal in SoutheastFound in Florida, Late 2009In 2010 and 2011, trapping program inSouth Carolina, North Carolina andVirginia (Burrack, Pfeiffer and Smith(SRSFC)
  20. 20. Jan. 2013: SWD Distribution in U. S. National Agricultural Pest Information System (NAPIS). Purdue University. "Survey Status of Spotted Wing Drosophila - Drosophila suzukii (2009 to present)." Published: 01/24/2012.
  21. 21. SWD in Virginia – 2011 Frederick Co. Aug. 3 First detected in Hanover Co. June 27, 2011Montgomery Co. Aug. 5 Sussex Co. July 27 Va Beach Sept.
  22. 22. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura),in Virginia – October 2012
  23. 23. Invasive drosophilids in Virginia Vineyards•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Trapping•New kid on the block•Management
  24. 24. SWD Host List – Risk?•Raspberries, blackberries, strawberriesblueberries•Cherries, grapes•Nectarines, peaches, plums•Apple, pear•Tomatoes?
  25. 25. SWD-infested raspberry
  26. 26. Drosophila suzukii
  27. 27. SWD Host List – Non-crop hosts•Wild blackberries•Pokeweed•Dogwood•Persimmon•Rose hips•Porcelain berry
  28. 28. SWD Eggs in Fruit
  29. 29. SWD Larvae in Fruit Note chewing holesE. Beers Cherry Strawberry Damage is difficult to see until larvae are almost mature
  30. 30. Drosophila suzukii
  31. 31. Drosophila suzukii
  32. 32. Drosophila suzukii
  33. 33. Invasive drosophilids in Virginia Vineyards•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Trapping•New kid on the block•Management
  34. 34. Trapping for SWD Apple cider vinegarsugar/yeast Burrack: SWD monitoring network
  35. 35. Novel Attractant• Montgomery Co. berry farm• Blackberry, raspberry and blueberry• Alpha Scents; plum, sweet cherry, sour cherry• Standard ACV• Control of Low-tox antifreeze• Three reps in each berry plot• Randomized each week• Monitored weekly• 1 August – 15 Sept (Blackberry)• 15 Sept – 15 Oct (Raspberry)
  36. 36. Preliminary Results ASWD and other drosophila adults *SWD adults in blue *Other drosophila adults in red AB B B Alpha Scent
  37. 37. Trapping Summary• SWD was found at every site where traps were placed• ACV probably not best monitoring, trap counts low• Little to no SWD trapping numbers in vineyards, yet fruit infested• Fruit scent of plum likely more attractive to SWD than sweet and sour cherry• Numerically very different from ACV• Fruit scents need to be more potent and/or longer lived
  38. 38. Invasive drosophilids in Virginia Vineyards•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Trapping•New kid on the block•Management
  39. 39. Albemarle County
  40. 40. Albemarle County
  41. 41. Drosophila suzukii
  42. 42. Drosophila suzukii
  43. 43. Drosophila suzukii
  44. 44. Zaprionus indianus Gupta, African fig fly
  45. 45. Zaprionus indianus Gupta, African fig fly
  46. 46. AFF World Distribution
  47. 47. AFF US Distribution2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2012
  48. 48. African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta,in Virginia – November 2012
  49. 49. Drosophila suzukii
  50. 50. Incidence in wine grapesWeak ovipositorSometimes high incidence in grape berries In some Virginia clusters, 90% of emerging drosphilids were AFF Sweep net samples in Pennsylvania vineyardsHow do they get into grapes?
  51. 51. Incidence in wine grapesPerhaps follow SWD injury?Biological control example in giant reed Arundo donax takes over wetlands Lasioptera donacis can kill reeds by mining in stalk Oviposits in hole made by another insect
  52. 52. Competition stuey of Gilpin et al. (1986)Paired rearing comparisons of 28drosophilid species, at two temps, two media1 Zaprionus, 27 Drosophila spp.
  53. 53. Gilpin et al. (1986)In thick food, carried out at 19°C, it wasranked 12 out of 28 in competitivenessIn thick medium at 25°C, it was ranked 8But in thin food, it was ranked 5 at 25°C,and ranked 3 at 19°C.
  54. 54. Gilpin et al. (1986)Crowd out other larvaeLiquify substrate, drowning other larvae
  55. 55. Invasive drosophilids in Virginia Vineyards•Background and identification of SWD•Movement and establishment•Hosts•Suitability of grapes•Trapping•New kid on the block•Management
  56. 56. SWD Management Cultural Control•Harvest fruit promptly to eliminate breeding sites•Destroy nearby overripe or rotten fruithttp://www.virginiafruit.ento.vt.edu/SWD.html
  57. 57. SWD Management Chemical Control•Need materials with short PHI•Need materials of various MOA•Need to rotate in a spray program!•In high risk crops, need to spray weekly or moreoften•Need local research on efficacy
  58. 58. SWD Management Chemical ControlOrganophosphates: Malathion effective in West; regionaldifferences? Imidan effective but long REI (14 d)in grape (watch for developments herewith new formulation)
  59. 59. SWD Management Chemical ControlCrop: Imidan Malathion 8E Malathion 8FCaneberry -- -- 1-4 ptsStrawberry -- 1.5–2 pts 1.5-2 ptsSw Cherry -- -- --Grape 1.33-2.12 1–1.8 pts 2-2.5 ptsBlueberry 1-1.33 lb -- 1.5-2.5 ptsPeach 2.12-4.25 -- 5-9 ptsNectarine 2.12-4.25 -- 2.5-9 ptsApple 2.12-5 lb -- --Pear 2.12-5.75 lb -- --
  60. 60. SWD Management Chemical ControlCrop: Imidan Malathion 8E Malathion 8FCaneberry -- -- 1-4 ptsStrawberry -- 1.5–2 pts 1.5-2 ptsSw Cherry -- -- --Grape 1.33-2.12 1–1.8 pts 2-2.5 ptsBlueberry 1-1.33 lb -- 1.5-2.5 ptsPeach 2.12-4.25 -- 5-9 ptsNectarine 2.12-4.25 -- 2.5-9 ptsApple 2.12-5 lb -- --Pear 2.12-5.75 lb -- --
  61. 61. SWD Management Chemical ControlCrop: Imidan Malathion 8E Malathion 8FCaneberry -- -- 1-4 ptsStrawberry -- 1.5–2 pts 1.5-2 ptsSw Cherry -- -- --Grape 1.33-2.12 1–1.8 pts 2-2.5 ptsBlueberry 1-1.33 lb -- 1.5-2.5 ptsPeach 2.12-4.25 -- 5-9 ptsNectarine 2.12-4.25 -- 2.5-9 ptsApple 2.12-5 lb -- --Pear 2.12-5.75 lb -- --
  62. 62. SWD Management Chemical ControlSpinosyns: Entrust (spinosad) effective butrelatively short lived Delegate (spinetoram) very effective
  63. 63. SWD Management Chemical ControlCrop: Bifenthrin Danitol Mustang BaythroidCaneberry 3d 3dStrawberry 0d 2dSw Cherry 3d 14 d 7dGrape 30 d 21 d 1d 3dBlueberry 1d 3dPeach 3d 14 d 7dNectarine 3d 14 d 7dApple 14 d 14 d 7dPear 14 d 14 d 14 d 7d
  64. 64. SWD Management Chemical Control – Commercial Vineyards Critical to use insecticides that have short PHI PHIs of 0-3 days are generally acceptable From 2013 Pest Management Guide to Horticultural and Forest Crops: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/456/456-017/456-017.htmlFourth Cover: mid-August or 10 days after third cover sprayEntrust spinosad 1.25-2.5 oz 7 d PHIDelegate spinetoram 3-5 oz 7 d PHIMalathion malathion 2.5 pt 3 d PHIMustang Max zeta-cypermethrin 2-4 fl oz 1 d PHIPyganic pyrethrins 64 fl oz 0 d PHIAzera pyrethrins/azadirachtin 1–2 pt 0 d PHI
  65. 65. SWD Management Chemical Control – Commercial Vineyards Critical to use insecticides that have short PHI PHIs of 0-3 days are generally acceptable From 2013 Pest Management Guide to Horticultural and Forest Crops: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/456/456-017/456-017.htmlFourth Cover: mid-August or 10 days after third cover sprayEntrust spinosad 1.25-2.5 oz 7 d PHIDelegate spinetoram 3-5 oz 7 d PHIMalathion malathion 2.5 pt 3 d PHIMustang Max zeta-cypermethrin 2-4 fl oz 1 d PHIPyganic pyrethrins 64 fl oz 0 d PHIAzera pyrethrins/azadirachtin 1–2 pt 0 d PHI
  66. 66. SWD Management Chemical Control – Commercial Vineyards Critical to use insecticides that have short PHI PHIs of 0-3 days are generally acceptable From 2013 Pest Management Guide to Horticultural and Forest Crops: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/456/456-017/456-017.htmlFourth Cover: mid-August or 10 days after third cover sprayEntrust spinosad 1.25-2.5 oz 7 d PHIDelegate spinetoram 3-5 oz 7 d PHIMalathion malathion 2.5 pt 3 d PHIMustang Max zeta-cypermethrin 2-4 fl oz 1 d PHIPyganic pyrethrins 64 fl oz 0 d PHIAzera pyrethrins/azadirachtin 1–2 pt 0 d PHI
  67. 67. Future Work• Chemical control including new chemistry – Need for rotating MOA – Need for less disruptive materials• Improved trapping• Varietal differences• Landscape effects• Biological control• Ecological interactions between SWD and AFF
  68. 68. A Request …To aid in proposal development,please send growerexperiences on SWD to: dgpfeiff@vt.eduAlso for access to Berry Scholar site!
  69. 69. Questions?

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