Spaces of Authoritarian Deliberation:
                     Online Public Deliberation in China


           Harvard Fairba...
Chinese Internet Population
298 million Internet users (CNNIC, 2009)
2/3 under age 30
162 million bloggers (more than ½ of...
Cyber Censorship and Its Myths




Photo LEFT: Mobinode.com and RIGHT: Wikimedia.org
Images MIDDLE from: http://www.wired....
“We Chinese Need to be Controlled”?


             Jackie Chan:
           Media quoted me out
                of context
...
Modern Authoritarianism




Patriotism + Legitimacy based on performance
Photo LEFT: http://www.flickr.com/photos/33673641...
Spaces of Authoritarian Deliberation


 Central propaganda spaces

 Government-regulated commercial spaces

 Emergent civi...
Central Propaganda Spaces 1
Central Propaganda Spaces 2
Central Propaganda Spaces 3

   Salary increase is
    offset by rise in
     housing price




                        Hu...
Central Propaganda Spaces 4
                                                                        “We pay great attentio...
Government-regulated Commercial Spaces 1

Number of Websites under Various                                    Top Applicat...
Government-regulated Commercial Spaces 2
Government-regulated Commercial Spaces 3




                      Image TOP LEFT: http://www.leedominic.com/
            ...
Government-regulated Commercial Spaces 4




    Fatianxia.com shut down
        on Dec. 16, 2008



                     ...
Government-regulated Commercial Spaces 5

                           Liu Xiaoyuan:
                       A young man arre...
Emergent Civic Spaces 1
Emergent Civic Spaces 2


Noncommercial Web Site
 Registration Regulation
Emergent Civic Spaces 3




Image LEFT: ChinaDaily
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-
10/24/content_275179.htm

Ima...
Emergent Civic Spaces 4
                           Activity Types:
                           online; meetups
            ...
International Deliberative Spaces 1
International Deliberative Spaces 2




Image MIDDLE: waxy.org by Andy Baio
Future Research
Engage reform-minded bureaucrats?
How to grow China’s emergent civil society?
Patterns of online informati...
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Harvard Fairbank Center - Min Jiang - Online Authoritarian Deliberation (Media in Chinese Politics Workshop)

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This research was presented at the postdoctoral workshop Media in Chinese Politics at Harvard University's Fairbank Center (April 25, 2009). Please contact the author for citation.

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Harvard Fairbank Center - Min Jiang - Online Authoritarian Deliberation (Media in Chinese Politics Workshop)

  1. 1. Spaces of Authoritarian Deliberation: Online Public Deliberation in China Harvard Fairbank Center - Media in Chinese Politics Workshop Min Jiang Assistant Professor Department of Communication Studies UNC-Charlotte Email: mjiang3@uncc.edu PPT Citation: Jiang, M. (2009, April 25). Spaces of authoritarian deliberation: Online public deliberation in China. Presented Citation: at Media in Chinese Politics Workshop at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Cambridge,
  2. 2. Chinese Internet Population 298 million Internet users (CNNIC, 2009) 2/3 under age 30 162 million bloggers (more than ½ of China’s netizens) 117 million Internet mobile phone users 700 million mobile phone users (½ of Chinese population) Photos courtesy of MinnPost.Com, eChinaCities.com MinnPost.Com,
  3. 3. Cyber Censorship and Its Myths Photo LEFT: Mobinode.com and RIGHT: Wikimedia.org Images MIDDLE from: http://www.wired.com/politics/security/magazine/15-11/ff_chinafirewall?currentPage=all http://www.wired.com/politics/security/magazine/15- http://politicsoffthegrid.wordpress.com/2008/07/02/chinese-bloggers-overpower-the-great-firewall-of-china/ http://politicsoffthegrid.wordpress.com/2008/07/02/chinese- bloggers- overpower- the- great- firewall- of-
  4. 4. “We Chinese Need to be Controlled”? Jackie Chan: Media quoted me out of context Dai Qincheng: (HK) Netizens demand Jackie Chan be sent to North Korea (reprint) Han Han: Read the Emperor’s mind like Jackie Chan ChinaNet, douban, Sina Blog (April 23, 2009)
  5. 5. Modern Authoritarianism Patriotism + Legitimacy based on performance Photo LEFT: http://www.flickr.com/photos/33673641@N00/1251068537 Photo RIGHT: http://rss.xinhuanet.com/newsc/english/2008-05/14/content_8168699.htm
  6. 6. Spaces of Authoritarian Deliberation Central propaganda spaces Government-regulated commercial spaces Emergent civic spaces International deliberative spaces
  7. 7. Central Propaganda Spaces 1
  8. 8. Central Propaganda Spaces 2
  9. 9. Central Propaganda Spaces 3 Salary increase is offset by rise in housing price Hundreds of billions of bad debt is caused by the banks’ mismanagement of of state-owned assets. But average folks eventually foot the bill.
  10. 10. Central Propaganda Spaces 4 “We pay great attention to suggestions and advice from our netizens. We stress “putting people first” and “governing for the people.” Therefore we listen to people’s voices and capitalize on people’s wisdom when we solve problems and make decisions. The Internet is an important channel for us to know public concerns and collect public wisdoms.” - President Hu Jingtao June 20, 2008 Photo by Li Ke, ChinaNet from http://tv.people.com.cn/GB/7398332.html
  11. 11. Government-regulated Commercial Spaces 1 Number of Websites under Various Top Applications Domain Names in China Domain Quantity Proportion Online Music (83.7%) Name Online News (78.5%) .CN 2,216,437 77% Instant Messaging (75%) .COM 552,898 19.2% Search Engine (68%) .NET 87,713 3% Online Video (67.7%) .ORG 21,005 0.7% Total Online Gaming (62.8%) 2,878,053 100.0% Source: 23rd CNNIC Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China (January 2009)
  12. 12. Government-regulated Commercial Spaces 2
  13. 13. Government-regulated Commercial Spaces 3 Image TOP LEFT: http://www.leedominic.com/ Image BOTTOM LEFT: XinhuaNet http://news.xinhuanet.com/photo/2007-08/29/content_6625132.htm Image RIGHT: Heredict Q blog http://blog.myneverland.org/archives/844
  14. 14. Government-regulated Commercial Spaces 4 Fatianxia.com shut down on Dec. 16, 2008 Bullog reopens overseas now.
  15. 15. Government-regulated Commercial Spaces 5 Liu Xiaoyuan: A young man arrested for calling his superior a scum
  16. 16. Emergent Civic Spaces 1
  17. 17. Emergent Civic Spaces 2 Noncommercial Web Site Registration Regulation
  18. 18. Emergent Civic Spaces 3 Image LEFT: ChinaDaily http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003- 10/24/content_275179.htm Image TOP RIGHT: Eastwood Zhao.com http://www.eastwoodzhao.com/stubborn-nail-house- demolished/
  19. 19. Emergent Civic Spaces 4 Activity Types: online; meetups sports; edu/lectures/study groups entertainment/games May 1st. /movies Where to go? concerts/exhibition travel conference Work experience public service project: Wash dishes at restaurants
  20. 20. International Deliberative Spaces 1
  21. 21. International Deliberative Spaces 2 Image MIDDLE: waxy.org by Andy Baio
  22. 22. Future Research Engage reform-minded bureaucrats? How to grow China’s emergent civil society? Patterns of online information sharing, civic/political discourse, collective action? How to engage China’s digital generations? Online authoritarian deliberation’s long-term impact on civic/political participation?

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