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Annenberg-Oxford Summer Institute - Min Jiang - Chinese Media Regulatory Structure


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Talk given at 2009 Annenberg-Oxford Summer Institute - Program in Comparative Media Law and Policy (The Center for Socio-legal Studies at University of Oxford)

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Annenberg-Oxford Summer Institute - Min Jiang - Chinese Media Regulatory Structure

  1. 1. Regulatory Structure of Chinese Media 2009 Annenberg/Oxford Summer Institute Min Jiang (Ph.D.) Assistant Professor of Communication UNC Charlotte
  2. 2. CCTV News Broadcast – Main Melody Photos courtesy of and
  3. 3. Great Wall: Now and Then
  4. 4. Development of Modern Chinese Media 1949-1966 party propaganda 1966-1976 cultural revolution 1978-2001 opening and reform 2001-now global expansion
  5. 5. Party Propaganda Images courtesy of and
  6. 6. Cultural Revolution Images courtesy of and
  7. 7. Opening and Reform Images courtesy of,, and
  8. 8. Global Expansion
  9. 9. Government Media Market Public
  10. 10. Major Regulatory Bodies CCP State Council State Council Information Office Publicity Dept. GAPP Ministry of Ministry of SARFT Of CPC NCAC Industry & IT Culture Press & Radio Literature & Arts; Industrial Propaganda Publications; Film Cultural Industry; Development; IT Copyright Television Live Performance
  11. 11. Legal Foundations Constitution Laws Criminal Law Civil Law Administrative regulations State Council Administrative rules Various ministries Local regulations
  12. 12. Constitution – State’s Role Article 22 The state promotes the development of art and literature, the press, radio and television broadcasting, publishing and distribution services… that serve the people and socialism…
  13. 13. Constitution – Civil Rights 1 Article 35 Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration. Article 47 Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the freedom to engage in scientific research, literary and artistic creation and other cultural pursuits…
  14. 14. Constitution – Civil Rights 2 Article 38 The personal dignity of citizens of the People's Republic of China is inviolable. Insult, libel, false accusation or false incrimination directed against citizens by any means is prohibited. Article 41 Citizens who have suffered losses as a result of infringement of their civic rights by any state organ or functionary have the right to compensation in accordance with the law.
  15. 15. Press Regulation – Print Media in 2006 Number Revenue U.S . of (billion USD) (billion USD) Newspapers 1,938 9.7 45.3 Magazines 9,368 4.7 11 Books 233,971 8.3 24.2 Note: Based on the exchange rate of 1 USD = 7.8 RMB Source: AAP, PPG, Wu, M. (2008), Government regulation of media. China Film Publishing.
  16. 16. Press Regulation Clash of philosophies Free press vs. Party leadership over the press Press law for all vs. Journalistic self discipline Proprietorship of legal person vs. Party control Anti-censorship vs. Party censorship Media watchdog vs. Media supervision Laws and regulations Copyright Law (1991) Regulations on the Administration of Publication (2001)
  17. 17. Press Regulation – Next Media Jimmy Lai
  18. 18. Broadcast Regulation (SARFT) Number of 2008 Revenue (billion USD) TV Stations 296* 207 Radio 303* Stations Film Studios 30* 6.1 Note: Based on the exchange rate of 1 USD = 7 RMB Source: *The Annals of SARFT (2007), CNetNews. A lot more TV stations at city and county levels (> 1000), not counting cable TV stations, or those in HK, Macao, Taiwan.
  19. 19. Broadcast Regulation - Competition
  20. 20. Broadcast Regulation – Story of a Bun
  21. 21. New Media Regulation Major regulations pertaining to new media Administration of Internet Publishing Tentative Provisions (MIIT, 2002) Administration of Internet Culture Tentative Provisions (MC, 2003) Provisions on the Administration of Internet News and Information (2005) Internet Information Communication Rights Provisions (2006) Regulations on the Disclosure of Government Information (2007)
  22. 22. New Media Regulation – Blogging
  23. 23. New Media - Green Dam, Damned
  24. 24. The Four Unchangeables Party’s control of the media Party’s control of top media personnel Party’s control over the ideological direction Party’s control over the asset structure of media Long Xinmin Vice Secretary of Beijing Party Committee 2001
  25. 25. Future Trends Continued Party domination “Double governance” Increasing commercialization Gov organizations to gov enterprises Absorption of private investment Globalization Exporting of Chinese media, cultural products, values