Most people think of these or similar concepts when considering social networks.They are built upon social networks, but are not social networks in an of themselves.
Have you ever noticed sections of webpages like this one from twitter?They are formulated to suggest friends based on popularity, self-selected interests, and similarity to the user.This is where social networks come into play.
Six Degrees of Separation (aka The Human Web) posits that everyone is on average approximately six steps away form any other person on Earth. This was firstpoularized by FrigyesKarinthy in 1929. It was further popularized by Stanley Milgram as the “Small World” phenomenon. Source: wikipedia.org.
http://www.sysomos.com/insidetwitter/sixdegrees/Recent work by sysomos by way of Twitter suggests otherwise. 79% are within 5 degrees of separation.
How many of you have seen graphs like these? This is SNA. You will see a few more applied to our research in the following slides.
Scott, 2000 – Page 67.Here are a few basic terms.1. Here are the Nodes: The point of the graph representing the observation.2. Here are the Edges/Lines: The line representing the relationship between nodes.Corresponds to the idea of an area of relatively high density in a graph.
Scott, 2000 – Page 67.This is the same SNA graph from the previous page. To the right is its sociomatrix.All social networks are built upon a sociomatrix. The graph is simply a representation of the matrix.This matrix is used for not only social network representation, but also for calculations pertaining to the relational data.MatrixA framework in which raw or coded data can be organized in a more or less efficient way. This is always done in the form of a table. The axes are based on any combination of cases and affiliations (Scott, 2000).
Studies are provided as a way to illustrate the growing use of SNA in multiple disciplines across the globe.Migration – Maier (2005)Friend Recommendations - Hsu, W.H., King, A.L., Paradesi, M.S.R., Pydimarri, T., & Weninger, T. (2006)Marketing – Doyle (2007)Military – VosFellman & Wright (2003)Disease Control - Andre, Ijaz, Tilinghas, Krebs, Diem, Metchock, Crisp, & McElroy (2006)
r4stats provides a link to run an updated graph.This one was run on November 11, 2010.Note:The numbers on the graph reflect how many searches have been done for a particular term, relative to the total number of searches done on Google over time. They don't represent absolute search volume numbers, because the data is normalized and presented on a scale from 0-100. Each point on the graph is divided by the highest point, or 100. When we don't have enough data, 0 is shown. The numbers next to the search terms above the graph are summaries, or totals.
This graph shows plainly that R is becoming a widely used resource if considering monthly e-mail discussion lists.Could the numbers in Figure 1 be the result of a few people doing a lot of talking? When you follow any of these discussion lists, it quickly becomes obvious that a core group of people really keep the lists humming. However the number of people who subscribe to each list shows a similar pattern with R-Help dominating the scene, see Table 1. An early version of this table failed to include subscribers to Statalist's digest version, and so under counted the total by about half.Discussion: Subscribers:R-Help 10,379Statalist 3,692SAS-L 3,253SPSSX-L 2,105Table 1. Number of subscribers for each Internet discussion list on 6/20/2010.
Not only has SNA popularity been on the rise, but so has the popularity of R.Also consider this, since the number of packages in R continue to increase, the possibility that whatever you will need will be available.For instance, once you get past the R learning curve, you can learn and implement many projects that are either not available through SPSS or SAS, but that you may not have a license to use. Just think of a project that you have to do where you only need to use a statistical process once, not providing use enough to purchase the separate software package.
http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/datacenter/Student Migration/Interstate MobilityThe movement of students who enroll at institutions of higher education outside of their home state (postsecondary.org).1st Time Degree Seeking UG graduating HS in last 12 months (efres02)
http://www.postsecondary.org/last12/214_410pg1_16.pdfText not copyrighted. Permission is granted to make copies from this research letter providing copies are not sold and the source is identified. Copies of research letter charts are available to subscribers in larger sizes at cost. Call for assistance.1:5 leave home state
Order is fairly similar to the Postsecondary study
NJ -> PA = 9300+ studentsMean = 148, median is 28, 2200 plus rows in the datasetCut at 100 is approximately top 25% of the dataset
Main Plot - FR Layout53% of freshmen enroll 100 miles or less
Online sources – simply search for SNA online. Or give us your card/contact info and we can send you a few that we use.
Limitations<br /><ul><li>We used only IPEDS First-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students who graduated from high school in the past 12 months data.</li></ul>The migration patterns don’t include international countries<br />Need to filter the data to remove edges that are small in volume<br />Policy implications were omitted from this discussion since they will vary depending upon the type of institution.<br />Policy development and evaluation using SNA has also been limited regarding publications (Van DerValk, Gijsbers 2010)<br />
References and Links<br />Andre, M., Ijaz, K., Tilinghas, J.D., Krebs, V.E., Diem, L.A., Metchock, B., Crisp, T., & McElroy, P.D. (2006). Transmission Network Analysis to Complement Routing Tuberculosis Contact Investigations. American Journal of Public Health, 96.<br />Cahill, Mark. (November 2009). Basics of Network Theory for Social Network Analysis (SNA) Part 1. Retrieved November 11, 2010, http://www.consultmark.ie/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/basic-social-network.jpg<br />Cheng, A. (April 2010). In Six Degrees of Separation, Twitter Style. Retrieved November 11, 2010, http://www.sysomos.com/insidetwitter/sixdegrees/<br />Doyle, S. (2007). The Role of Social Networks in Marketing. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 15, 60-64. DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.dbm.3250070.<br />Hsu, W.H., King, A.L., Paradesi, M.S.R., Pydimarri, T., & Weninger, T. (2006). Collaborative and Structural Recommendation of Friends using Weblog-based Social Network Analysis. AAAI Spring Symposia 2006 on Computational Approaches to Analysing Weblogs.<br />Maier, G. (2005). Internal Migration between US States – A Social Network Analysis. Retrieved November 13, 2010, http://iir-hp.wu-wien.ac.at/sre-disc/sre-disc-2005_04.pdf<br />Muenchen, R.A. (2010). In The Popularity of Data Analysis Software. Retrieved November 11, 2010, http://www.r4stats.com/popularity<br />ntamas (User of Last.fm). (n.d.). In Reconstructing the Structure of the World-Wide Music Scene with Last.fm. Retrieved November 11, 2010, http://sixdegrees.hu/last.fm/index.html<br />Postsecondary.org (April 2010). Interstate Migration of College Freshmen 1986 to 2008. Postsecondary Education Opportunity, 214. Retrieved from http://www.postsecondary.org/last12/214_410pg1_16.pdf <br />Scott, J.P. (2000). Social Network Analysis: A Handbook 2nd Edition. London: Sage Publications.<br />Social Network. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved November 11, 2010, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network<br />VosFellman, P. & Wright, R. (2003). Modeling Terrorist Networks – Complex Systems at the Mid-Range. Retrieved November 13, 2010, http://www.psych.lse.ac.uk/complexity/Conference/FellmanWright.pdf<br />
Resources<br />Drew Conway ZIA http://drewconway.com/zia/<br />Quick-R www.statmethods.net<br />R4Stats. http://www.r4stats.com/popularity<br />R for SAS and SPSS Users. http://oit.utk.edu/scc/RforSAS&SPSSusers.pdf<br />R Links for the Beginner on World Statistics Day. http://www.r-bloggers.com/r-links-for-the-beginner-on-world-statistics-day/<br />R Project for Statistical Computing. http://www.r-project.org/<br />Simple R – Using R for Introductory Statistics. http://cran.r-project.org/doc/contrib/Verzani-SimpleR.pdf<br />Social Network Analysis Resources for R. http://jeromyanglim.blogspot.com/2009/08/social-network-analysis-resources-for-r.html<br />Software for Exploratory Data Analysis and Statistical Modeling. http://www.wekaleamstudios.co.uk/<br />Some Hints for the R Beginner: Avoiding “Blank Screen Syndrome”. http://www.r-bloggers.com/some-hints-for-the-r-beginner-avoiding-blank-screen-syndrome/<br />StackOverflow (User Forum) www.stackoverflow.com (tag = R)<br />Statistics with R. http://zoonek2.free.fr/UNIX/48_R/all.html<br />The igraph Library. http://igraph.sourceforge.net/<br />Use R – Invited Lectures. http://user2010.org/Invited/<br />YouTube http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=R+statistics <br />